Time Zone: -3 hours. No daylight saving time at the moment.
Tel. Country Code: 598
USADirect Tel.: 0
Electrical Standards: Electrical current is 220/50 (volts/hz). European Style Adaptor Plug and South Pacific Style Adaptor Plug. Grounding Adaptor Plugs E, I.
TRAVEL ADVISORY - URUGUAY
Travelers to Central and South America and the Caribbean need to protect themselves against mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as dengue and Zika, as well as nighttime biting mosquitoes in countries where there is the threat of malaria. I recommend all travelers use a combination of DEET or Picaridin repellent on their skin and Permethrin fabric insecticide on their clothing for greater than 99% protection against mosquito and tick bites.
• Canadian Embassy
749 Plaza Independencia app.102
Tel:  (2) 902-2030
Fax:  (2) 902-2029
All United States citizens entering Uruguay for business or pleasure must have a valid passport. U.S. citizens traveling on a regular passport do not need a visa for a visit of less than three months. U.S. citizens traveling on diplomatic or official passports require a visa. For further information on entry requirements, contact the Embassy of Uruguay at 1913 •Eye• Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006, Tel. (202) 331-4219; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Travelers may also contact the Consulate of Uruguay in New York, Miami, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Puerto Rico. Visit the Embassy of Uruguay website at http://www.uruwashi.org/ for the most current visa information.
HIV Test: Not required.
Required Vaccinations: None required.
Uruguay is a constitutional democracy with a large, educated middle class and a robust developing economy. The capital city is Montevideo. Tourist facilities are generally good with many 5-star accommodations at resort destinations such as Punta del Este and Colonia de Sacramento. The quality of tourist facilities varies according to price and area. Travelers are encouraged to seek travel agency assistance in making plans to visit Uruguay.
VACCINATIONS: RECOMMENDED AND ROUTINE
Hepatitis A: Recommended for all travelers >1 year of age not previously immunized against hepatitis A.
Hepatitis B: Recommended for all non-immune travelers at potential risk for acquiring this infection. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from acupuncture, tattooing or body piercing; when receiving non-sterile medical or dental injections, or unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin sores on an infected person. Recommended for long-term travelers, expatriates, and any traveler requesting protection against hepatitis B infection.
Routine Immunizations: Immunizations against tetanus-diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR vaccine) and varicella (chickenpox) should be updated, if necessary, before departure. MMR protection is especially important for any female of childbearing age who may become pregnant.
• In addition to tetanus, all travelers, including adults, should be fully immunized against diphtheria. A booster dose of a diphtheria-containing vaccine (Td or Tdap vaccine) should be given to those who have not received a dose within the previous 10 years.
Note: ADACEL and Boostrix are new tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap) vaccines that not only boost immunity against diphtheria and tetanus, but have the advantage of also protecting against pertussis (whooping cough), a serious disease in adults as well as children. The Tdap vaccines can be administered in place of the Td vaccine when a booster is indicated.
Typhoid: Recommended for all travelers with the exception of short-term visitors, business travelers, and cruise passengers who restrict their meals to major restaurants, hotels and resorts.
HOSPITALS / DOCTORS
All travelers should be up-to-date on their immunizations and are advised to carry a medical kit as well as antibiotics to treat travelers• diarrhea or other infections; they should bring drugs for malaria prophylaxis, if needed according to their itinerary. Travelers who are taking regular medications should carry them properly labeled and in sufficient quantity to last for the duration of their trip; they should not expect to obtain prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies in this country•the equivalent drugs may not be available.
• Travelers are advised to obtain comprehensive travel insurance that provides for medical evacuation to more advanced medical facility in the event of serious illness or injury that requires specialty care not available in this country.
Medical care is adequate for routine problems. Most expatriates go to the British Hospital.
• British Hospital
Av. Italia 2420
Tel:  (2) 487-1020
The British Hospital has 85 rooms, a pediatric unit, four maternity rooms, two ICUs, five operating theatres, a Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, an Out-Patients Department, and a 24-hour Accident & Emergency Department; facility used by U.S. Embassy personnel.
In addition, there are 70 doctors on the staff, as well as an additional 120 with attending privileges and another 60 independent consultants. Most of the staff doctors have international training in the UK, USA, Canada, Continental Europe, Japan or Latin America.
• Mutualista Hospital Evangelico
Bulevar Batlle y Ordonez 2759
Tel:  (2) 487 2319
Urgencia:  (2) 487 3838
DESTINATION HEALTH INFO FOR TRAVELERS
AIDS/HIV: In the majority of South American countries, injecting drug use and sex between men are the most important routes of HIV transmission. The virus is then passed on to other sexual partners. In Central America, drug use plays a smaller role and most infections appear to be occurring through sexual transmission (both heterosexual and between men).
In the 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic the UNAIDS/WHO Working Group estimated that around 9,500 adults aged 15 or over in Uruguay were living with HIV; the prevalence rate was estimated at around 0.5% of the adult population. (Source:www.Avert.org).
• Transmission of HIV can be prevented by avoiding: sexual contact with a high-risk partner; injecting drug use with shared needles; non-sterile medical injections; unscreened blood transfusions.
• The threat of HIV/AIDS should not be a primary concern for the traveler. However, there may be a concern for a subset of travelers who may be exposed to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, through contact with another person’s body fluids or blood. Although travel has contributed in a general way to the global spread of AIDS, fear of traveling because of this disease is not warranted.
Accidents & Medical Insurance: Accidents and injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers under the age of 55 and are most often caused by motor vehicle and motorcycle crashes; drownings, aircraft crashes, homicides, and burns are lesser causes.
• Heart attacks cause most fatalities in older travelers.
• Infections cause only 1% of fatalities in overseas travelers, but, overall, infections are the most common cause of travel-related illness.
• MEDICAL INSURANCE: Travelers are advised to obtain, prior to departure, supplemental travel health insurance with specific overseas coverage. The policy should provide for direct payment to the overseas hospital and/or physician at the time of service and include a medical evacuation benefit. The policy should also provide 24-hour hotline access to a multilingual assistance center that can help arrange and monitor delivery of medical care and determine if medevac or air ambulance services are required.
Chagas’ Disease: Reported in all rural areas of Uruguay except the Atlantic coast areas. Areas with high incidence include the Departments of Artigas, Rivera, Salto, and Tacuarembo. Risk occurs in those rural-agricultural areas where there are adobe-style huts and houses that potentially harbor the night-biting triatomid (assassin) bugs. Travelers sleeping in such structures should take precautions against nighttime bites.
Cholera: Not officially reported, but sporadic cases may occur. The threat to tourists is very low. Cholera is an extremely rare disease in travelers from developed countries. Cholera vaccine is usually recommended only for people, such as relief workers or health care personnel, who are working in a high-risk endemic area under less than adequate sanitary conditions, or travelers who work or live in remote, endemic or epidemic areas and who don’t have ready access to medical care. Canada, Australia, and countries in the European Union license an oral cholera vaccine. The cholera vaccine is not available in the United States.
• The main symptom of more severe cholera is copious watery diarrhea.
• Antibiotic therapy is a useful adjunct to fluid replacement in the treatment of cholera by substantially reducing the duration and volume of diarrhea and thereby lessening fluid requirements and shortening the duration of hospitalization.
• A single 1-gm oral dose of azithromycin is effective treatment for severe cholera in adults. This drug is also effective for treating cholera in children. (NEJM:http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/354/23/2452)
Dengue Fever: Not currently reported, except for a single case in 2007. The risk appears minimal, but dengue is endemic throughout the region, including neighboring Paraguay. Dengue fever is a mosquito-transmitted, flu-like viral illness widespread in South America. Symptoms consist of sudden onset of fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash. A syndrome of hemorrhagic shock can occur in severe cases.
• Dengue is transmitted via the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours. All travelers are at risk and should take measures to prevent daytime mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin and applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear.
• There is no vaccination or medication to prevent or treat dengue.
A dengue fever map is at:http://www.nathnac.org/ds/c_pages/documents/dengue_map.pdf
Hepatitis: There are occasional outbreaks of hepatitis A. All travelers not previously immunized against hepatitis A should be vaccinated against this disease. Travelers who are non-immune to hepatitis A (i.e. have never had the disease and have not been vaccinated) should take particular care to avoid potentially contaminated food and water. Travelers who will have access to safe food and water are at lower risk. Those at higher risk include travelers visiting friends and relatives, long-term travelers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation.
• Hepatitis E may be endemic but the levels are unclear. Sporadic cases may occur but go underdiagnosed or underreported. Transmission of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs primarily through drinking water contaminated by sewage and also through raw or uncooked shellfish. Farm animals, such as swine, and also deer and wild boar, may serve as a viral reservoirs. (HEV is one of the few viruses which has been shown to be transmitted directly from animals through food.) In developing countries, prevention of hepatitis E relies primarily on the provision of clean water supplies and overall improved sanitation and hygiene. There is no vaccine.
• The overall hepatitis B (HBsAg) carrier rate in the general population is estimated at <2%. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from non-sterile medical or dental injections, and acupuncture; from unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin lesions of an infected person. The average traveler is at low risk for acquiring this infection. Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for: persons having casual/unprotected sex with new partners; sexual tourists; injecting drug users; long-term visitors; expatriates, and anybody wanting increased protection against the hepatitis B virus.
• Hepatitis C is endemic at a low level with a prevalence estimated at 0.5% in the general population. Most hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread either through intravenous drug use or, in lesser-developed countries, through blood contamination during medical procedures. Over 200 million people around the world are infected with hepatitis C - an overall incidence of around 3.3% of the population of the world. Statistically, as many people are infected with HCV as are with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
Malaria: There is no risk of malaria in Uruguay.
Other Diseases/Hazards: Anthrax (human cases reported among those working with farm animals)
• Echinococcosis (up to 1.4% of rural human population may be infected strongyloidiasis and other helminthic infections, and trichinosis (3% of the population infected)
Rabies: Uruguay is considered to be rabies-free. No cases of indigenous rabies have been confirmed in humans or any animal species, including bats, from 2001 to mid-2006. All unprovoked dog or wild animal bites, however, should be medically evaluated for possible post-exposure treatment.
Travelers' Diarrhea: Low to moderate risk. All water sources outside of Montevideo should be considered potentially contaminated. Beaches close to Montevideo may be contaminated by sewage. Outside of hotels and resorts, we recommend that you boil, filter or purify all drinking water or drink only bottled water or other bottled beverages and do not use ice cubes. Avoid unpasteurized milk and dairy products. Do not eat raw or undercooked food (especially meat, fish, raw vegetables—these may transmit intestinal parasites, as well as bacteria). Peel all fruits.
• Wash your hands with soap or detergent, or use a hand sanitizer gel, before you eat. Good hand hygiene reduces the incidence of travelers’ diarrhea by 30%.
• A quinolone antibiotic, azithromycin, or rifaximin (Xifaxin), combined with loperamide (Imodium), is recommended for the treatment of diarrhea. Diarrhea not responding to antibiotic treatment may be due to a parasitic disease such as giardiasis, amebiasis, or cryptosporidiosis.
• Seek qualified medical care if you have bloody diarrhea and fever, severe abdominal pain, uncontrolled vomiting, or dehydration.
Typhoid Fever: Typhoid fever is the most serious of the Salmonella infections. Typhoid vaccine is recommended by the CDC for all people (with the exception of short-term visitors who restrict their meals to hotels) traveling to or working in South America, especially if visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas and staying with friends or relatives where exposure might occur through food or water. Current vaccines against Salmonella typhi are only 50-80% protective and do not protect against Salmonella paratyphi, the cause of paratyphoid fever. (Paratyphoid fever bears similarities with typhoid fever, but the course is generally more benign.) Travelers should continue to practice strict food, water and personal hygiene precautions, even if vaccinated.
Yellow Fever: Yellow fever vaccination is required for all travelers >1 year of age arriving from any country in the yellow fever endemic zones in Africa or the Americas, but is not recommended or required otherwise.