Trinidad and Tobago
Time Zone: -4 hours.
Tel. Country Code: 1
USADirect Tel.: 1
Electrical Standards: Electrial standard is 110/60 and 220/50 (voltz/hz). North American Style Adaptor Plug. Grounding Adaptor Plugs A, C, F.
Travel Advisory - Trinidad and Tobago
Travelers to Central and South America and the Caribbean need to protect themselves against mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as dengue and Zika, as well as nighttime biting mosquitoes in countries where there is the threat of malaria. I recommend all travelers use a combination of DEET or Picaridin repellent on their skin and Permethrin fabric insecticide on their clothing for greater than 99% protection against mosquito and tick bites.
Dr. Rose Recommends for Travel to Trinidad and Tobago
U.S. Embassy: 15 Queen's Park West in Port-of-Spain; Tel: 1-868-622-6371; Fax: 1-868-628-5462.
• Canadian Embassy
Sweet Briar Road
Port of Spain
• British High Commission
19 St. Clair Avenue
Port of Spain
Main switchboard:  (868) 622 2748
Fax:  (868) 628-3064 Consular
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A valid passport is required of U.S. citizens for entry to Trinidad and Tobago. U.S. citizens do not need a visa for tourism or business-related visits of 90 days or less.
Entry requirements for UK nationals: UK passport holders, regardless of endorsement, do not need a visa for a stay of up to three months.
Entry requirements for Canadians: Canadians need a valid passport but do not need a visa for a stay of up to three months.
HIV Test: Not required.
Required Vaccinations: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for all travelers >1 year of age arriving from any infected area in the yellow fever endemic zone country in Africa or the Americas.
Trinidad and Tobago is a developing nation in the Caribbean composed of two islands. The islands gained independence from the British in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean, largely as a result of petroleum and natural gas industries. Tourist travel is mostly to the smaller of the two sister islands, Tobago. Tourist facilities are widely available.
Vaccinations: Recommended and Routine
Hepatitis A: Recommended for all travelers >1 year of age not previously immunized against hepatitis A.
Hepatitis B: Recommended for all non-immune travelers at potential risk for acquiring this infection. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from acupuncture, tattooing or body piercing; when receiving non-sterile medical or dental injections, or unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin sores on an infected person. Recommended for long-term travelers, expatriates, and any traveler requesting protection against hepatitis B infection.
Influenza: Vaccination recommended for all travelers >6 months of age who have not received a flu shot in the previous 12 months.
Rabies: Rabies vaccine is recommended for: persons anticipating an extended stay; for those whose work or activities may bring them into contact with animals; for people going to rural or remote locations where medical care is not readily available; for travelers desiring extra protection.
Routine Immunizations: Immunizations against tetanus-diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR vaccine) and varicella (chickenpox) should be updated, if necessary, before departure. MMR protection is especially important for any female of childbearing age who may become pregnant.
• The new Tdap vaccine, ADACEL, which also boosts immunity against pertussis (whooping cough) should be considered when a tetanus-diphtheria booster is indicated.
Typhoid: Recommended for all travelers with the exception of short-stay visitors who restrict their meals to hotels or resorts.
Yellow Fever: Travelers >1 year of age entering the country from an infected area are required to present a certificate of immunization against yellow fever.
• Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for all travelers at least 9 months of age whose itinerary includes Trinidad. Port of Spain has lower risk of transmission than rural or forested areas. Cruise ship passengers who do not disembark from the ship or travelers visiting only the urban area of Port of Spain (including passengers in-transit only) may consider foregoing vaccination.
Hospitals / Doctors
All travelers should be up-to-date on their immunizations and are advised to carry a medical kit as well as antibiotics to treat travelers diarrhea or other infections. Travelers who are taking regular medications should carry them properly labeled and in sufficient quantity to last for the duration of their trip; they should not expect to obtain prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies in this country - the equivalent drugs may not be available or may be of unreliable quality.
• Travelers are advised to obtain comprehensive travel insurance with specific overseas coverage. Policies should cover: ground and air ambulance transport, including evacuation to home country; payment of hospital bills; 24-hour telephone assistance. Serious illness or injury may require aeromedical evacuation to another country.
Medical care in Trinidad and Tobago is limited. There may be shortages of critical supplies and medications. There are two public hospitals on the islands.
A listing of doctors and hospitals is here: http://www.tntisland.com/medical.html
• Port of Spain General Hospital
169 Charlotte Street
Port of Spain
Tel:  (868) 625 7869
• Tobago Regional Hospital
Fort King George
Tel:  (868) 639-2551
• St. Claire Medical Center
18 Elizabeth Street
Port of Spain
Tel:  (868) 628-1451
This is a private clinic in Port of Spain often used by travelers. Payment in advance, or a deposit, may be required.
Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex
Tel:  (868) 645-2640
Dialysis services are available.
Destination Health Info for Travelers
AIDS/HIV & Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STD): The most important sexually transmitted diseases and infectious agents are HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia infections, trichomoniasis, chancroid, genital herpes and genital warts. Infection occurs during unprotected sexual intercourse. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis may also be transmitted in contaminated blood, body fluids, and blood products, by contaminated syringes and needles used for injection, and potentially by unsterilized instruments used for acupuncture, piercing and tattooing. Source: www.wordtravels.com
HIV/AIDS: The Caribbean has a well-established HIV epidemic and the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the region is now second only to sub-Saharan Africa, making the region the second most affected in the world. The predominant route of HIV transmission in the Caribbean is heterosexual contact. Much of this transmission is associated with commercial sex, but the virus is also spreading in the general population. The contribution by men having sex with men (MSM) is also significant but not well documented, due to a general atmosphere of homophobia making data gathering difficult. At one extreme, Haiti has the highest HIV prevalence in the entire western hemisphere (3.8%); at the other, Cuba has one of the lowest (0.1%). The Bahamas (3.3%), Trinidad and Tobago (2.6%) and Guyana (2.4%) are all heavily affected, while Puerto Rico is the only Caribbean country apart from Cuba where it is thought that less than 1% of the population is living with HIV. The overall prevalence of HIV in the Caribbean is estimated to be between 1.1% and 2.2%. (Source: www.Avert.org)
• Transmission of HIV can be prevented by avoiding: sexual contact with a high-risk partner; injecting drug use with shared needles; medical injections or skin piercing with non-sterile equipment; unscreened blood transfusions.
• The threat of HIV/AIDS should not be a primary concern for the traveler. However, there may be a concern for a subset of travelers who may be exposed to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, through contact with the body fluid of another person or their blood. Although travel has contributed in a general way to the global spread of AIDS, fear of traveling because of this disease is not warranted.
Accidents & Medical Insurance: Accidents and injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers under the age of 55 and are most often caused by motor vehicle and motorcycle crashes; drownings, aircraft crashes, homicides, and burns are lesser causes.
• Heart attacks cause most fatalities in older travelers.
• Infections cause only 1% of fatalities in overseas travelers, but, overall, infections are the most common cause of travel-related illness.
• MEDICAL INSURANCE: Travelers are advised to obtain, prior to departure, supplemental travel health insurance with specific overseas coverage. The policy should provide for direct payment to the overseas hospital and/or physician at the time of service and include a medical evacuation benefit. The policy should also provide 24-hour hotline access to a multilingual assistance center that can help arrange and monitor delivery of medical care and determine if medevac or air ambulance services are required.
Dengue Fever: Outbreaks of dengue fever occur annually on Trinidad & Tobago. In January 2008 an outbreak was reported from south Trinidad and more cases have recently been diagnosed in the Central Borough of Chaguanas. Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted, flu-like viral illness widespread in the Caribbean and is the most common cause of fever in travelers returned from this region. Symptoms consist of sudden onset of fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash.
• Dengue is transmitted via the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours. All travelers are at risk.
• There is no vaccination or medication to prevent dengue. All travelers to the Trinidad & Tobago should take measures to prevent daytime mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin, permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear, and sleeping under a permethrin-treated bednet at night.
Hepatitis: All travelers not previously immunized against hepatitis A should be vaccinated against this disease. Travelers who are non-immune to hepatitis A (i.e. have never had the disease and have not been vaccinated) should take particular care to avoid potentially contaminated food and water. Travelers who will have access to safe food and water are at lower risk. Those at higher risk include travelers visiting friends and relatives, long-term travelers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation.
• Hepatitis E may be endemic but levels are unclear. Sporadic cases may be underdiagnosed or underreported. Transmission of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs primarily through drinking water contaminated by sewage and also through raw or uncooked shellfish. Farm animals, such as swine, and also deer and wild boar, may serve as a viral reservoirs. (HEV is one of the few viruses which has been shown to be transmitted directly from animals through food.) In developing countries, prevention of hepatitis E relies primarily on the provision of clean water supplies and overall improved sanitation and hygiene. There is no vaccine.
• Hepatitis B is endemic at a moderate level. The overall hepatitis B (HBsAg) carrier rate in the general population is estimated at 2% to 7%. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from non-sterile medical or dental injections, and acupuncture; from unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin lesions of an infected person. The average traveler is at low risk for acquiring this infection. Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for: persons having casual/unprotected sex with new partners; sexual tourists; injecting drug users; long-term visitors; expatriates, and anybody wanting increased protection against the hepatitis B virus.
• Hepatitis C is endemic at high level with a prevalence of 4.9% in the general population. Most hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread either through intravenous drug use or, in lesser-developed countries, through blood contamination during medical procedures. Over 200 million people around the world are infected with hepatitis C - an overall incidence of around 3.3% of the population of the world. Statistically, as many people are infected with HCV as are with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
Influenza: Influenza is transmitted year-round in the tropics. The flu vaccine is recommended for all travelers over age 6 months.
Leptospirosis: There have been reports of leptospirosis from this country. Travelers should avoid contact with animal urine or water potentially contaminated with animal urine.
Malaria: There is no risk of malaria at this time.
Marine Hazards: Swimming related hazards include jellyfish, spiny sea urchins, and coral.
• Ciguatera poisoning is prevalent and can result from eating coral reef fish such as grouper, snapper, sea bass, jack, and barracuda. The ciguatoxin is not destroyed by cooking.
Other Diseases/Hazards: • Brucellosis (from unpasteurized dairy products or contact with infected slaughtered animals)
• Filariasis (Bancroftian variety; mosquito-borne; may occur in the Lesser Antilles from Trinidad north to Guadeloupe)
• Intestinal helminthic infections (hookworm, roundworm, strongyloidiasis, and whipworm),
• Viral encephalitis
Rabies: Animal rabies was reported in 1987. The potential of transmission to humans exists. Rabies occurs or is presumed to occur in wild and domestic animals (including bats) but the risk is low. Travelers should especially avoid stray dogs and seek immediate treatment of any animal bite. Rabies vaccination is usually indicated following the bite of a dog, cat, bat, or monkey.
Travelers' Diarrhea: Low to moderate risk. In urban and resort areas, the hotels and restaurants generally serve reliable food and potable water. Elsewhere, travelers should observe all food and drink safety precautions. A quinolone antibiotic, azithromycin, or rifaximin, combined with loperamide (Imodium), is recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea. Diarrhea not responding to antibiotic treatment may be due to a parasitic disease such as giardiasis.
Tuberculosis (TB): Tuberculosis is highly endemic in Trinidad & Tobago with an annual occurrence was greater than or equal to 40 cases per 100,000 population. Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted following inhalation of infectious respiratory droplets. Most travelers are at low risk. Travelers at higher risk include those who are visiting friends and relatives (particularly young children), long-term travelers, and those who have close contact, prolonged contact with the local population. There is no prophylactic drug to prevent TB. Travelers with significant exposure should have PPD skin testing done to evaluate their risk of infection.
Typhoid Fever: Typhoid fever is the most serious of the Salmonella infections. Typhoid vaccine is recommended by the CDC for all people (with the exception of short-term visitors who restrict their meals to hotels or resorts and cruise ship passenger) traveling to or working in the Caribbean, especially if visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas and staying with friends or relatives where exposure might occur through food or water. Current vaccines against Salmonella typhi are only 50-80% protective and do not protect against Salmonella paratyphi, the cause of paratyphoid fever. (Paratyphoid fever bears similarities with typhoid fever, but the course is generally more benign.) Travelers should continue to practice strict food, water and personal hygiene precautions, even if vaccinated.
Yellow Fever: In January 2009, the Trinidad Ministry of Health confirmed that two monkeys had died of yellow fever virus infection. A number of other monkeys have been found dead, but no cause of death has been confirmed. Although no human cases of yellow fever have been reported since 1979, these monkey deaths suggest that yellow fever virus is circulating in the forested areas of Trinidad. People traveling outside Port of Spain, especially those who visit rural or forested areas of Trinidad, are at risk for infection with yellow fever virus, especially if they have not been vaccinated. Urban, coastal areas of Trinidad are considered less of a risk. There is no risk on the island of Tobago.
Yellow fever is transmitted via the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito (mainly Aedes aegypti). Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours. You should take measures to prevent daytime insect bites. For maximum protection, apply a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin (30%–50% concentration recommended) and apply permethrin spray or solution to your clothing and gear.
• Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for all travelers >9 months of age who will be going to rural, inland areas of Trinidad but not for those visiting only Tobago or the urban or coastal areas of Trinidad.
• A valid yellow fever vaccination certificate is REQUIRED for all travelers >1 year of age arriving from any country where there is risk of this disease.