Time Zone: +11 hours. No daylight saving time in 2008.
Tel. Country Code: 677
USADirect Tel.: 0
Electrical Standards: Electrical current is 220/50 (volts/hz). South Pacific Style Adaptor Plug. Grounding Adaptor Plug E.
• U.N. Mission
There is no U.S. Embassy or diplomatic post in the Solomon Islands. There is a volunteer American warden in Honiara who has general information and can provide assistance, for example with passports; contact B.J.S. Industries Limited; Tel.  22-393. Consular assistance for U.S. citizens is provided by the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; Tel:  321-1455.
• Virtual Embassy for the Solomon Islands is at: http://www.usvpp-solomonislands.org/.
• The Canadian High Commission in Canberra, the Canadian Consulate General in Sydney and the Canadian Honorary Consuls in Melbourne and Perth offer a range of services to both Canadians and Australians. They cover the Pacific Islands of Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
• Consulate General of Canada
Quay West Building
111 Harrington Street
Tel: (2) 9364-3000
Fax:  (2) 9364-3098
• British High Commission
Tel:  21705, 21706
Fax:  21549
HIV Test: Not required
Required Vaccinations: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from travelers over 1 year of age arriving from infected or endemic areas.
Passport/Visa: The Solomon Islands form an Archipelago in the southwest Pacific Ocean about 1,200 miles northeast of Australia. The capital, Honiara, is located on the Island of Guadalcanal. The Solomon Islands are a parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth. Tourism facilities are limited, particularly outside Honiara.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: U.S. passport holders do not require visas to enter the Solomon Islands. Passports, onward/return tickets and proof of sufficient funds for the duration of stay are required. Visitor permits are granted upon arrival at Henderson International Airport in Honiara. Visitors may enter any number of times provided the total period in the Solomon Islands does not exceed 90 days in a 12-month period. Persons arriving on one-way airline tickets must have documentation stating their business, for example, a work permit if taking if taking up employment in the Solomon Islands. The Solomon Islands government strictly enforces immigration laws, and travelers may face fines and other penalties if they remain in the country beyond the authorized period of stay.
Persons arriving on yachts should visit the nearest immigration office to complete arrival forms for issuance of visitors' permits.
Travelers who plan to depart on a yacht should apply for a visitor’s permit before their arrival in the Solomon Islands, to the Director of Immigration (via fax to the U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara at 677-27429). The application should state the traveler’s arrival date, vessel name and registration details, vessel’s arrival date, approximate time traveler will spend in the Solomon Islands, and it should request entry on a one-way (arrival only) airline ticket. The Director will issue a permit to be presented at airline check-in. If the traveler does not have this permit, she/he may be denied boarding.
For more information about entry requirements, travelers may contact the Solomon Islands Mission to the United Nations at 800 Second Avenue, Suite 8008, New York, NY 10017-4709; Tel: (212) 599-6192 or 6193. Travelers who anticipate the possibility of transiting or visiting Australia are advised to obtain an electronic travel authority (ETA) or visa for Australia before leaving the United States. An ETA may be obtained for a small service fee at http://www.eta.immi.gov.au/. Airlines and many travel agents in the United States are also able to issue ETAs.
Vaccinations: Recommended and Routine
Hepatitis A: Recommended for all travelers >1 year of age not previously immunized against hepatitis A.
Hepatitis B: Recommended for all non-immune travelers at potential risk for acquiring this infection. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from acupuncture, tattooing or body piercing; when receiving non-sterile medical or dental injections, or unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin sores on an infected person. Recommended for long-term travelers, expatriates, and any traveler requesting protection against hepatitis B infection.
Influenza: Vaccination recommended for all travelers >6 months of age who have not received a flu shot in the previous 12 months.
Routine Immunizations: Immunizations against tetanus-diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR vaccine) and varicella (chickenpox) should be updated, if necessary, before departure. MMR protection is especially important for any female of childbearing age who may become pregnant.
• In addition to tetanus, all travelers, including adults, should be fully immunized against diphtheria. A booster dose of a diphtheria-containing vaccine (Td or Tdap vaccine) should be given to those who have not received a dose within the previous 10 years.
Note: ADACEL and Boostrix are new tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap) vaccines that not only boost immunity against diphtheria and tetanus, but have the advantage of also protecting against pertussis (whooping cough), a serious disease in adults as well as children. The Tdap vaccines can be administered in place of the Td vaccine when a booster is indicated.
Typhoid: Recommended for all travelers with the exception of short-term visitors who restrict their meals to hotels or resorts.
Yellow Fever: Travelers >1 year of age entering the country from an endemic or infected area are required to present a certificate of immunization against yellow fever.
Hospitals / Doctors
All travelers should be up-to-date on their immunizations and are advised to carry a medical kit as well as antibiotics to treat travelers diarrhea or other infections; they should bring drugs for malaria prophylaxis, if needed according to their itinerary. Travelers who are taking regular medications should carry them properly labeled and in sufficient quantity to last for the duration of their trip; they should not expect to obtain prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies in this country - the equivalent drugs may not be available; may be counterfeit; or be of unreliable quality.
• Travelers are advised to obtain comprehensive travel insurance with specific overseas coverage, including air ambulance transport. In the event of an emergency illness or injury that can't be treated locally, every effort should be made to arrange medical evacuation to Australia.
All travelers should be up-to-date on their immunizations and are advised to carry a medical kit as well as antibiotics to treat travelers diarrhea or other infections; they should bring drugs for malaria prophylaxis, if needed according to their itinerary. Travelers who are taking regular medications should carry them properly labeled and in sufficient quantity to last for the duration of their trip; they should not expect to obtain prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies in this country - the equivalent drugs may not be available or may be of unreliable quality.
• Travelers are advised to obtain comprehensive travel insurance with specific overseas coverage. Policies should cover: ground and air ambulance transport, including evacuation to home country; payment of hospital bills; 24-hour telephone assistance. In the event of a serious illness or injury every effort should be made to arrange medical evacuation to Australia, which has the closest, more advanced medical facilities.
There is a hyperbaric recompression chamber in Honiara at the In-the-Zone Medical Centre.
Tel:  23 485 or 23 482
• Central Hospital/National Referral Hospital
Tel:  23 600
General medical facility; x-ray, pharmacy, laboratory.
• Kilu'ufi Hospital
Tel:  40 272
• Atoifi Adventist Hospital
Tel:  41 102
Fax:  41 102
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
General medical facility; pharmacy.
• Lata Hospital
Santa Cruz Island
Tel:  53 045
• The U.S. Peace Corps (Tel. 21612) or U.S. Embassy can also be contacted for a physician recommendation.
Destination Health Info for Travelers
AIDS/HIV: It is estimated that 0.4% of the adult population of Oceania is living with HIV/AIDS, but no statistics are currently available for the Solomon Islands. The prevalence rate in Papua New Guinea is 1.8% of the adult population 15 to 49 years of age.
• Transmission of HIV can be prevented by avoiding: sexual contact with a high-risk partner; injecting drug use with shared needles; non-sterile medical injections; unscreened blood transfusions.
• The threat of HIV/AIDS should not be a primary concern for the traveler. However, there may be a concern for a subset of travelers who may be exposed to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, through contact with the body fluid of another person or their blood. Although travel has contributed in a general way to the global spread of AIDS, fear of traveling because of this disease is not warranted.
Accidents & Medical Insurance: Accidents and injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers under the age of 55 and are most often caused by motor vehicle and motorcycle crashes; drownings, aircraft crashes, homicides, and burns are lesser causes.
• Heart attacks cause most fatalities in older travelers.
• Infections cause only 1% of fatalities in overseas travelers, but, overall, infections are the most common cause of travel-related illness.
• MEDICAL INSURANCE: Travelers are advised to obtain, prior to departure, supplemental travel health insurance with specific overseas coverage. The policy should provide for direct payment to the overseas hospital and/or physician at the time of service and include a medical evacuation benefit. The policy should also provide 24-hour hotline access to a multilingual assistance center that can help arrange and monitor delivery of medical care and determine if medevac or air ambulance services are required.
Animal/Marine Hazards: Centipedes, scorpions, funnel-web spiders (particularly aggressive and possesses a potent venom that can result in human fatalities) and large black ants may be encountered by hikers and “bush walkers.”
• Swimming related hazards include jellyfish, sea snakes, spiny sea urchins, and coral. Ciguatera poisoning is prevalent and can result from eating coral reef fish such as grouper, snapper, sea bass, jack, and barracuda. The ciguatoxin is not destroyed by cooking.
Dengue Fever: A small number of cases of dengue fever were reported in early 2002. Urban areas and low-lying rural areas are considered at high risk of dengue outbreaks during the rainy season months, December–January to May–June. Dengue fever is a mosquito-transmitted, flu-like viral illness occurring in many parts of Oceania. Symptoms consist of sudden onset of fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash. A syndrome of hemorrhagic shock can occur in severe cases.
• Dengue is transmitted via the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours. All travelers should take measures to prevent mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET- or picaridin-containing repellent to exposed skin and applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear. There is no vaccination or medication to prevent or treat this disease.
• You should consider the diagnosis of dengue if you develop an unexplained fever during or after being in this country.
• A dengue fever map is at: http://www.nathnac.org/ds/c_pages/documents/dengue_map.pdf
Hepatitis: All travelers not previously immunized against hepatitis A should be vaccinated against this disease. Travelers who are non-immune to hepatitis A (i.e. have never had the disease and have not been vaccinated) should take particular care to avoid potentially contaminated food and water. Travelers who will have access to safe food and water are at lower risk. Those at higher risk include travelers visiting friends and relatives, long-term travelers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation.
• Hepatitis E may be endemic but levels are unclear. Sporadic cases may occur. Transmission of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs primarily through drinking water contaminated by sewage and also through raw or uncooked shellfish. In developing countries, prevention of hepatitis E relies primarily on the provision of clean water supplies and overall improved sanitation and hygiene. There is no vaccine.
• Hepatitis B is hyperendemic. The overall hepatitis B (HBsAg) carrier rate in the general population is estimated as high as 20% in some population groups. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from non-sterile medical or dental injections, and acupuncture; from unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin lesions of an infected person. The average traveler is at low risk for acquiring this infection. Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for: persons having casual/unprotected sex with new partners; sexual tourists; injecting drug users; long-term visitors; expatriates, and anybody wanting increased protection against the hepatitis B virus.
• Hepatitis C is endemic with a prevalence of 0.9% in the general population. Most hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread either through intravenous drug use or, in lesser-developed countries, through blood contamination during medical procedures. Over 200 million people around the world are infected with hepatitis C - an overall incidence of around 3.3% of the population of the world. Statistically, as many people are infected with HCV as are with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
Influenza: Influenza is transmitted year-round in the tropics. The flu vaccine is recommended for all travelers over age 6 months who have not received a flu shot in the previous 12 months.
Insect-Bite Prevention: There is the risk of insect-transmitted diseases in this country. You should take measures to prevent insect-bites, especially in rural areas. For maximum protection, apply a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin (30%–50% concentration recommended), apply permethrin spray or solution to your clothing and gear, and sleep under a permethrin-treated bednet (if available).
• Until recently, DEET-based repellents have been the gold standard against mosquito and tick bites. The CDC and the World Health Organization now recommend 20% picaridin as an effective DEET alternative. You can achieve nearly 100% bite protection by using a properly-applied DEET or picaridin skin repellent and wearing permethrin-treated clothing.
Malaria: Risk is present countrywide, including urban areas. Falciparum malaria predominates 2:1 over vivax malaria. Multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria occurs and chloroquine-
and Fansidar-resistant falciparum malaria are widespread. The recommended prophylaxis for adult travelers is atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone), mefloquine (Lariam), doxycycline, or primaquine (G6PD test required).
A malaria map is located on the Fit for Travel website, which is compiled and maintained by experts from the Travel Health division at Health Protection Scotland (HPS). Go to www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk and select Malaria Map from the Solomon Islands page on the Destinations menu or A-Z Index.
Malaria is transmitted via the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Anopheles mosquitoes feed predominantly during the hours from dusk to dawn. All travelers should take measures to prevent evening and nighttime mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin, applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear, and sleeping under a permethrin-treated bednet. DEET-based repellents have been the gold standard of protection under circumstances in which it is crucial to be protected against insect bites that may transmit disease. Nearly 100% protection can be achieved when DEET repellents are used in combination with permethrin-treated clothing.
NOTE: Picaridin repellents (20% formulation, such as Sawyer Picaridin or Natrapel 8-hour) are now recommended by the CDC and the World Health Organization as acceptable non-DEET alternatives to protect against malaria-transmitting mosquito bites. Picaridin is also effective and ticks and biting flies.
• You should consider the diagnosis of malaria if you develop an unexplained fever during or after being in this country.
• Long-term travelers who may not have access to medical care should bring along medications for emergency self-treatment should they develop symptoms suggestive of malaria, such as fever, chills, headaches, and muscle aches, and cannot obtain medical care within 24 hours.
Marine Hazards/Injuries: Ciguatera poisoning is prevalent and can result from eating coral reef fish such as grouper, snapper, sea bass, jack, and barracuda. The ciguatoxin is not destroyed by cooking.
Swimming-related hazards include sharks, jellyfish, including the Indo-Pacific man-of-war, stonefish, scorpion fish, stingrays, sea snakes, spiny sea urchins, sharp coral and poisonous cone shells. Swimmers should take sensible precautions to avoid these hazards. Stonefish, scorpion fish and stingrays congregate in shallow water along the ocean floor and can be difficult to see. Wearing booties may help protect you, but should not be relied upon as complete protection, as many of the spines are sufficiently rigid and long to penetrate wetsuits, booties, and gloves.
• The jellyfish population appears to be increasing, due in part to overfishing of jellyfish predators, rising water temperatures, and pollution. Jellyfish travel in groups, so looking before you leap into water may be protective.
Treatment guidelines for jellyfish stings: http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic199.htm
• To avoid a shark attack, swim or dive with a group. Avoid swimming during hours of darkness or twilight, in fog, or in murky waters. Avoid swimming in the vicinity of sea lions, harbor seals or elephant seals. Avoid swimming near the mouths of rivers where sharks hunt for fish. When diving, minimize time spent at the surface. Wearing a wetsuit and fins or lying on a surfboard creates the silhouette of a seal to a shark below you. Shallow water is not a deterrent to sharks; attacks have occurred in less than 5 ft/1.5 m of water.
The most serious hazards:
Sea snakes: Sea snake venom is highly toxic and the mortality has been reported to be 25% in untreated cases. In severe envenomations, symptoms can occur within 5 minutes, but typically evolve over 8 hours. It is possible that the victim may not have been aware of the bite, since there is little or no pain on envenomation.
Symptoms often include anxiety, muscle aching, salivation and a sensation of tongue swelling, followed by nausea, vomiting, muscle spasms, ascending paralysis, ocular palsy and sometimes loss of vision. Respiratory collapse may ensue, and the need for endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation should be anticipated. Sea snake antivenom (older name: antivenin) should be administered in all actual and suspected cases.
• A sea snake bite is always a medical emergency, even if the victim does not appear ill.
• You must get the victim to an emergency department, as fast as possible.
• En route, attempt to keep the bite site in a resting position, while keeping the victim as still as possible.
• Apply a broad pressure bandage over the bite about as tight as an elastic wrap to a sprained ankle. This is intended to slow the spread of the venom through the lymphatic system. Apply a splint to the limb. Make sure that arterial circulation is not cut off, by making sure fingers or toes stay pink and warm.
• Never cut open a sea snake bite and try to suck venom from the victim.
• Sea snake toxin is not inactivated by changes in temperature or pH. Application of ice, hot packs, or vinegar only wastes time.
Read more: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/771804-overview
The box jellyfish is the most dangerous jellyfish in the world. Box jellyfish belong to the class Cubozoa, and are not a true jellyfish (Scyphozoa), although they show many similar characteristics. When people talk about the extremely dangerous Australian box jellyfish they refer to the species Chironex fleckeri. Chironex fleckeri (sometimes simply called “the box Jellyfish”), is the best-known species of box jellyfish, and is only one of a category which actually contains about 19 different species. The name sea wasp is also applied to some species of Cubozoans, including the aforementioned Chironex fleckeri. Chironex fleckeri is present in the waters of Australia, the Indo-Pacific region, including Vietnam, Papua New Guinea, the Phillipines, and Hawaii. It amy be present in the waters of the Solomon Islands. Their exact distribution has not been fully determined.
The other species that is known to have caused deaths is Carukia barnesi, commonly called Irukandji. This tiny jellyfish is only about thumbnail size.
• Box jellyfish stings are extremely painful, potentially lethal and require treatment with antivenom. Cardio-respiratory arrest may occur within 20 minutes of envenomation. Four other varieties of jellyfish (jimble, Carukia, mauve stinger, and hairy stinger) should also be avoided.
Box jellyfish treatment and antivenom information:
The stonefish is a rather unattractive squat fish with a mostly rough “skin” that assists its superb camouflage as it sits on old coral or debris. There is a series of erectile dorsal spines, which, with the associated venom glands, provides the creature means of envenoming potential predators. Stonefish are mostly encountered in shallow water, where they may be stepped on by accident, or picked up by the unwary. Instant and severe pain is a constant feature of stings, followed by local swelling, which may be marked, tenderness and a blue discoloration of skin surrounding the sting site. Dizziness, nausea, hypotension, collapse, cyanosis and pulmonary edema have been described, though are by no means common. Tissue ischemia at the sting site is possible.
• Antivenom: Stonefish antivenom should only be given if there is clear evidence of envenomation. It should be given only IM, not IV.
• The use of stonefish antivenom in stings by other species of scorpionfish is not clearly recommended, but there is limited evidence that it may be beneficial (e.g. possibly bullrout stings, Notesthes robusta). The potential risks of immediate and delayed adverse reactions to antivenom should be carefully considered before using this antivenom for other than stonefish stings.
Emergency treatment guidelines for marine stings are here:
Clinical Toxicology Resources
University of Adelaide
Wilderness Medicine and Field Guide to Wilderness Medicine
Other Diseases/Hazards: Bancroftian filariasis is endemic. Sporadic cases and outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis are reported. All travelers should take protective measures against mosquito bites to prevent these diseases.
• Hookworm is endemic. Travelers are advised to wear shoes/sandals to prevent transmission of the hookworm larvae through the soles of the feet. There is a low risk of scrub typhus during the rainy seasons. Travelers walking through grassy areas should protect themselves from chigger mites.
Travelers' Diarrhea: Cases of diarrhea and dysentery have been reported near Gizo and other locations. Outside of hotels and resorts, we recommend that you boil, filter or purify all drinking water or drink only bottled water or other bottled beverages and do not use ice cubes. Avoid unpasteurized milk and dairy products. Do not eat raw or undercooked food (especially meat, fish, raw vegetables—these may transmit intestinal parasites, as well as bacteria). Peel all fruits.
• Wash your hands with soap or detergent, or use a hand sanitizer gel, before you eat. Good hand hygiene helps prevent travelers’ diarrhea.
• A quinolone antibiotic, or azithromycin, combined with loperamide (Imodium), is recommended for the treatment of diarrhea. Diarrhea not responding to antibiotic treatment may be due to a parasitic disease such as giardiasis, amebiasis, or cryptosporidiosis.
• Seek qualified medical care if you have bloody diarrhea and fever, severe abdominal pain, uncontrolled vomiting, or dehydration.
Tuberculosis (TB): Tuberculosis is highly endemic in the Solomon Islands with an annual occurrence was greater than or equal to 40 cases per 100,000 population. Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted following inhalation of infectious respiratory droplets. Most travelers are at low risk. Travelers at higher risk include those who are visiting friends and relatives (particularly young children), long-term travelers, and those who have close contact, prolonged contact with the local population. There is no prophylactic drug to prevent TB. Travelers with significant exposure should have PPD skin testing done to evaluate their risk of infection.
Typhoid Fever: Typhoid vaccine is recommended by the CDC for all people traveling to or working in Oceania, especially if visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas and staying with friends or relatives where exposure might occur through food or water. Current vaccines against Salmonella typhi are only 50-80% protective and do not protect against Salmonella paratyphi, the cause of paratyphoid fever. (Paratyphoid fever bears similarities with typhoid fever, but the course is generally more benign.) Travelers should continue to practice strict food, water and personal hygiene precautions, even if vaccinated.