Travel Tips for Slovenia, Updated Intl. Guide – Travel Medicine, Inc.
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Capital: Ljubljana

Time Zone: +1 hour. (GMT +2 from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October).
Tel. Country Code: 386
USADirect Tel.: 0
Electrical Standards: Electrical current is 220/50 (volts/hz). European Style Adaptor Plug. Grounding Adaptor Plug D.

Travel Advisory - Slovenia

Europe, Russia and former the Soviet Union countries vary widely in travel risks and adequacy of health care delivery. Water- and food-borne illnesses such as travelers' diarrhea, typhoid and Giardia are threats outside of Western Europe. Insect-transmitted diseases, such as Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis are common in wooded, rural areas in most countries, including Western Europe.

Dr. Rose Recommends for Travel to Slovenia

Resource Links

World Health Organization
Travel Health Services
Country Insights
Travel Warnings
Consular Information
Foreign Commonweatlh Office


• U.S. Embassy
Presernova 31
Tel: [386] (1) 200-5500
Fax: [386] (1) 200-5535

• Canadian Embassy
c/o Triglav Insurance Company Ltd.
Miklosiceva 19
Tel: [386] (1) 430-3570
Fax: [386] (1) 430-3575

• British Embassy
4th floor Trg Republike 3
Tel: [386] (1) 200 3910

Entry Requirements

HIV Test: Not Required.

Required Vaccinations: None Required.

Passport Information

Passport/Visa: Slovenia operates under a parliamentary democracy. In May 2004, Slovenia became a member of the European Union. Tourist facilities are widely available throughout the country. 

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A valid passport is required for entry into Slovenia. Slovene authorities may confiscate passports with signs of damage, such as missing pages, as suspicious documents, potentially causing travel delays. 
Visas are not required for American citizens arriving for tourist or business stays up to 90 days. Americans are permitted up to 90 days stay within any 6-month period. For further information on entry requirements for Slovenia, travelers may contact the Embassy of Slovenia at 2410 California Street, NW, Washington, DC 20008, Tel: (202) 386-6610, the Consulate General of Slovenia in New York City, Tel: (2l2) 370-3006; or the Consulate General in Cleveland, Ohio, Tel: (216) 589-9220. Visit the Embassy of Slovenia• s website at: for the most current visa information.

Vaccinations: Recommended and Routine

Hepatitis A: Recommended for all travelers >1 year of age not previously immunized against hepatitis A.

Hepatitis B: Recommended for all non-immune travelers at potential risk for acquiring this infection. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and uånprotected sex; when receiving non-sterile medical or dental injections, or unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin sores on an infected person. Recommended for long-term travelers, expatriates, and any traveler requesting protection against hepatitis B infection.

Influenza: Vaccination recommended for all travelers >6 months of age who have not received a flu shot in the previous 12 months.

Rabies: Rabies vaccine is recommended for: persons anticipating an extended stay; for those whose work or activities may bring them into contact with animals; for people going to rural or remote locations where medical care is not readily available; for travelers desiring extra protection.

Routine Immunizations: Immunizations against tetanus-diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR vaccine) and varicella (chickenpox) should be updated, if necessary, before departure. MMR protection is especially important for any female of childbearing age who may become pregnant.
• The new Tdap vaccine, ADACEL, which also boosts immunity against pertussis (whooping cough) should be considered when a tetanus-diphtheria booster is indicated.

Typhoid: Recommended for all travelers with the exception of short-term visitors who restrict their meals to major restaurants and hotels.

Hospitals / Doctors

Adequate medical care is readily available.
All travelers should be up-to-date on their immunizations and are advised to carry a medical kit as well as antibiotics to treat travelers• diarrhea or other infections. Travelers who are taking regular medications should carry them properly labeled and in sufficient quantity to last for the duration of their trip; they should not expect to obtain prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies in this country - the equivalent drugs may not be available or be of unreliable quality.
• Travelers are advised to obtain comprehensive travel insurance with specific overseas coverage. Policies should cover: ground and air ambulance transport, including evacuation to home country; payment of hospital bills; 24-hour telephone assistance. In the event of serious illness or injury, medical evacuation to a more advanced facility in Western Europe is indicated.

A list of English-speaking doctors and a list of hospitals maintained by the U.S. Embassy is here:

• Zdravje Medical Center
Smoletova 18
Tel: [386] (1) 436 81 93

• University Medical Center Ljubljana
Tel. [386] (1) 522 5050
Emergency Tel: [386] (1) 522 8408
Main receiving trauma facility and teaching center.

• General Hospital Izola
Polje 35
Tel: [386] 56606299

• UKC Maribor
Ljubljanska ulica 5
2000 Maribor
Tel: [386] (2) 32 11 000
Large multi-specialty facility covering the Styria region in the northeastern part of the country.

• Jesenice General Hospital (JGH)
Tita 112
Tel: [386] (4) 5868 000
JGH covers High Carniola, a mountainous region in the northwestern part of the country.

• Dr. Franca Derganca Nova Gorica
Ulica padlih borcev 13
Tel: [386] (5) 330 10 00
This facility is located in Nova Gorica (Gorizia in Italian), a border city between Italy and Slovenia.

• In Slovenia, there are 26 hospitals and maternity hospitals. The most important Slovene health institution is the Central Teaching Hospital in Ljubljana.

Destination Health Info for Travelers

AIDS/HIV: In most countries the HIV epidemic is driven by behaviours (e.g., multiple sexual partners, commercial sex, injecting drug use) that expose individuals to the risk of infection.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains of major public health importance in Europe. The predominant mode of transmission for HIV infection in European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries appears to be sex between men. The number of newly diagnosed HIV cases reported among men who have sex with men (MSM) has recently increased in Europe. In 23 countries with consistent data for the period from 2000 to 2006, there was an overall 86% increase in the number of reported cases of newly diagnosed HIV infection among MSM. Among these countries more than doubling of cases since 2000 was observed in five countries, with the highest increase of more than three times reported from Slovenia. The prevalence of adults living with HIV in Slovenia is estimated at 0.2%.
Read more:
• The threat of HIV/AIDS should not be a primary concern for the traveler. However, there may be a concern for a subset of travelers who may be exposed to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, through contact with another person’s body fluids or blood. Although travel has contributed in a general way to the global spread of AIDS, fear of traveling because of this disease is not warranted.
• Transmission of HIV can be prevented by avoiding: sexual contact with a high-risk partner; injecting drug use with shared needles; non-sterile medical injections; unscreened blood transfusions.

Accidents & Medical Insurance: Accidents and injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers under the age of 55 and are most often caused by motor vehicle and motorcycle crashes; drownings, aircraft crashes, homicides, and burns are lesser causes.
• Heart attacks cause most fatalities in older travelers.
• Infections cause only 1% of fatalities in overseas travelers, but, overall, infections are the most common cause of travel-related illness.
• MEDICAL INSURANCE: Travelers are advised to obtain, prior to departure, supplemental travel health insurance with specific overseas coverage. The policy should provide for direct payment to the overseas hospital and/or physician at the time of service and include a medical evacuation benefit. The policy should also provide 24-hour hotline access to a multilingual assistance center that can help arrange and monitor delivery of medical care and determine if medevac or air ambulance services are required.

Avian Influenza A (Bird Flu): The Slovene Government confirmed on 12 February 2006, that the H5N1 form of Avian Influenza had been found in a swan in north east Slovenia. Tests are being done on eight other wild birds found dead in the same region. On 6 June 2006, the Slovene authorities announced that these tests were negative.
• Avian influenza A (H5N1) is predominantly a disease of birds. The virus does not pass easily from birds to people and does not to pass from person to person (except in very rare cases of close contact with an infected blood relative).
• The risk to humans from avian influenza is believed to be very low and no travel restrictions are advised, except travelers should avoid visiting animal markets, poultry farms and other places where they may come into close contact with live or dead poultry, or domestic, caged or wild birds and their excretions. In addition, travelers are advised to: 1. Cook poultry and egg dishes thoroughly. (Well-cooked poultry is safe to eat.) 2. Wash hands frequently with soap and water if around poultry.
• The World Health Organization (WHO) does not recommend travel restrictions to countries experiencing outbreaks of influenza A (H5N1) in birds, including those countries which have reported associated cases of human infection. To date, no cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) illness have been identified among short-term travelers visiting countries affected by outbreaks among poultry or wild birds.

The usual vaccines against influenza are not protective against “bird flu.” Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is somewhat effective in the treatment of avian influenza A (H5N1). It seems to be effective in some cases, but may fail in others. Recently, resistant strains have been reported. In addition, the dosage and duration of treatment appear to be different in severe cases.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: This is a viral encephalitis transmitted by ticks. Insect-bite precautions are recommended for rural travel and include use of a DEET-containing repellent applied to exposed skin, insecticide spray applied to clothing, gear, and mosquito nets, and use of a bednet at night while sleeping.
• CCHF is caused by a virus and is transmitted by tick bite or by exposure to blood or secretions from infected animals or humans. Anyone who has visited this country and is suffering from a fever, headache, chills, muscle aches, vomiting, red rash (which does not fade when pressed under glass), bleeding on the roof of the mouth, or any other unexplained symptoms should seek medical advice immediately. Risk is seasonal, associated with periods of high tick activity (usually March through September, but seasonal patterns may occur) and increases in tick and rodent host populations.

Ehrlichiosis: The first cases of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (caused by Anaplasma phagocytophila) in Europe have been reported from Slovenia. HGE should be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses occurring after a tick bite in Slovenia. Travelers are advised to take measures to prevent tick bites. Tick-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin and treating clothing and gear with permethrin insecticide spray or solution. Source: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 990:279-284 (2003)
• The symptoms of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) may include a sudden high fever, headache, muscle aches (myalgia), chills, and a general feeling of weakness and fatigue (malaise) within a week or so after initial infection. In most cases, abnormal laboratory findings may occur including an abnormally low number of circulating blood platelets (thrombocytopenia), a decrease in white blood cells (leukopenia), and an abnormal increase in the level of certain liver enzymes (hepatic transaminases). In some cases, symptoms may progress to include nausea, vomiting, cough, diarrhea, loss of appetite (anorexia), and/or confusion. If left untreated, life-threatening symptoms, such as kidney failure and/or respiratory problems, may develop in some cases.

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS): As of April 2008, 11 sporadic cases of HFRS have been reported in Slovenia (two in January, one in February, five in March, and three more until 16 April). This represents an early increase of reported HFRS cases since 2007.
• Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute zoonotic viral disease, caused by hantaviruses. Hantaviruses infect rodents worldwide. They are transmitted to humans by aerosol from rodent excreta. Several hantaviruses are known to infect humans with varying severity.
Eurosurveillance reference:

Hepatitis: All travelers not previously immunized against hepatitis A should be vaccinated against this disease. Travelers who are non-immune to hepatitis A (i.e. have never had the disease and have not been vaccinated) should take particular care to avoid potentially contaminated food and water. Travelers who will have access to safe food and water are at lower risk. Those at higher risk include travelers visiting friends and relatives, long-term travelers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation.
• Hepatitis E is endemic but levels are unclear. Sporadic cases may occur but go unrecognized as being caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Transmission of HEV occurs primarily through drinking water contaminated by sewage and also through raw or uncooked shellfish. Farm animals, such as swine, and also deer and wild boar, may serve as a viral reservoirs. (HEV is one of the few viruses which has been shown to be transmitted directly from animals through food.) In developing countries, prevention of hepatitis E relies primarily on the provision of clean water supplies and overall improved sanitation and hygiene. There is no vaccine.
• Hepatitis B is moderately endemic. The hepatitis B (HBsAg) carrier rate in the general population is estimated at 2% to 7%. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from non-sterile medical or dental injections, and acupuncture; from unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin lesions of an infected person. The average traveler is at low risk for acquiring this infection. Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for: persons having casual/unprotected sex with new partners; sexual tourists; injecting drug users; long-term visitors; expatriates, and anybody wanting increased protection against the hepatitis B virus.
• Hepatitis C is endemic but levels are unclear. Most hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread either through intravenous drug use or, in lesser-developed countries, through blood contamination during medical procedures. Over 200 million people around the world are infected with hepatitis C - an overall incidence of around 3.3% of the population of the world. Statistically, as many people are infected with HCV as are with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

Influenza: Influenza is transmitted from November through March. The flu vaccine is recommended for all travelers over age 6 months.

Leishmaniasis: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)is present in limited areas along the Dalmatian and Adriatic coasts. CL is characterised by skin ulcers, usually on exposed parts of the body and depending on the organism, can take a long time to heal. It is widespread throughout the Middle East, North Africa, the Mediterranean basin, sub-Saharan Africa, and countries of the former Soviet Union.
• The parasites that cause leishmaniasis are transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sandfly. Sandflies bite mostly in the evening and at night. They breed in ubiquitous places: in organically rich, moist soils (such as found in the floors of rain forests), animal burrows, termite hills, and the cracks and crevices in stone or mud walls, and earthen floors, of human dwellings.
• All travelers should take measures to prevent sandfly bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin, permethrin (spray or solution) to clothing and gear, and sleeping under a permethrin-treated bednet.

Lyme Disease: The highest risk of Lyme borreliosis in Europe is found in central Europe, with Slovenia and Austria having the highest rates of infection. Most cases in Slovenia are reported from the northern part of the country. Risk of transmission occurs in rural brushy, wooded, and forested areas up to 1,500 meters elevation, especially April through September. All travelers who engage in hiking, camping, or similar outdoor activities in rural wooded regions of endemic areas should take measures to prevent tick bites. Tick-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin and permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear.
• A single 200-mg dose of doxycycline is effective in preventing Lyme disease if taken within 72 hours of being bitten by an infected tick. (Reference:

Malaria: There is no risk of malaria in Slovenia.

Rabies: Occurs primarily in wild animals, especially foxes. Rabies is occasionally reported in humans. Rabies vaccine is recommended for: persons anticipating an extended stay; for those whose work or activities may bring them into contact with animals; for people going to rural or remote locations where medical care is not readily available; for travelers desiring extra protection. Children are considered at higher risk because they tend to play with animals and may not report bites.
• Pre-exposure vaccination eliminates the need for rabies immune globulin, but does not eliminate the need for two additional booster doses of vaccine. Prompt medical evaluation and treatment of any animal bite is essential, regardless of vaccination status.

Sandfly Fever and West Nile Fever: Cases have been reported in the Adriatic area. Insect-bite precautions are recommended for rural travel and include use of a DEET-containing repellent applied to exposed skin, insecticide spray applied to clothing and gear, and the use of a permethrin-treated bednet at night while sleeping.

Sexually-Transmitted Diseases: Read more:

Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE): Ticks transmitting TBE are most active from March to November and are distributed in brushy and forested areas at elevations up to 1,400 meters, country-wide. Vaccination against TBE should be considered by those camping near forests for extended periods, for extended hiking and camping in wooded areas, and for forest workers. The standard vaccination schedule consists of 3 doses given at 0, 1-3 months, and at 9-12 months. An 2-dose accelerated schedule is possible (0, 21 days), with 85% protection resulting. The European vaccine (FSME-IMMUN-Baxter) is available in health clinics in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Poland, as well as Canada, but the traveler would have to initiate the vaccine after arriving in the area and hiking/camping delayed for 3 weeks before adequate protection to kick in. This makes administration of vaccine generally impractical for the average traveler. Tick-bite protection is therefore essential.
• Travelers, especially those engaging in outdoor activities in rural areas, are advised to take measures to prevent tick bites during the peak transmission season, March to November. Tick-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin and permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear.
• A map showing the distribution of TBE is here:

Travelers' Diarrhea: Medium risk. Travelers should drink only bottled, boiled, or treated water and avoid undercooked food. A quinolone antibiotic, or azithromycin, combined with loperamide (Imodium), is recommended for the treatment of diarrhea. Diarrhea not responding to treatment with an antibiotic may be due to a parasitic disease, especially giardiasis or cryptosporidiosis.
Note: In June and July 2008, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis with a total of at least 408 cases occurred in the municipality of Piran, on the Slovenian Adriatic coast. Preliminary interviews indicated that the only common source of exposure was the local water distribution system in Piran which supplies all inhabitants of the town. Between 1997 and 2007, 20 waterborne outbreaks were notified in Slovenia, with between five and 181 cases reported in each outbreak. More than half of those outbreaks were caused by contamination of drinking water from water supply systems. In twelve outbreaks where the causative agent was identified, the following agents were isolated: astrovirus, calicivirus, Cryptosporidium parvum, E. coli, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus and Shigella sonnei. (Eurosurveillance 21 August 2008)

Typhoid Fever: Typhoid vaccine is recommended by the CDC for all people traveling to or working in the Balkans, especially if visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas and staying with friends or relatives where exposure might occur through food or water. Current vaccines against Salmonella typhi are only 50-80% protective and do not protect against Salmonella paratyphi, the cause of paratyphoid fever. (Paratyphoid fever bears similarities with typhoid fever, but the course is generally more benign.) Travelers should continue to practice strict food, water and personal hygiene precautions, even if vaccinated.