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Capital: Asmara

Time Zone: +3 hours.
Tel. Country Code: 291
Electrical Standards: Electrical current is 220/50 (volts/hz). European Style Adaptor Plug. Grounding Adaptor Plug I.

World Health Organization
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Travel Warnings
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Entry Requirements

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Destination Health Info for Travelers

African Sleeping Sickness (Trypanosomiasis): Areas of transmission of the Rhodesian form of sleeping sickness occur in southwestern Ethiopia in Gamo, Gofa, Ilubabor, Kefa, andb Welega Administrative Divisions. Gambien sleeping sickness may occur in areas adjacent to southern Sudan. Travelers to these areas should take measures to prevent insect (tsetse fly) bites.

Arboviral Fevers: Dengue most likely occurs in the coastal regions. Sandfly fever, West Nile fever, Chikungunya fever, Sindbis fever, and Rift Valley fever may occur.

Cholera: Outbreaks occur, but this disease is not officially reported. The risk of cholera, however, is extremely low in international travelers from developed countries, such as the United States and Canada. Cholera vaccine (no longer available in the US) is recommended only for travelers at high risk who work and live in highly endemic areas under less than adequate sanitary conditions.
The manufacture and availability of cholera vaccine in the United States ceased in June 2000. Many countries, including Canada, license an oral cholera vaccine.
Cholera vaccine is not "officially" required for entry into, or exit from, any country. Despite this, some countries, on occasion, require proof of cholera immunization from travelers coming from cholera-infected countries. Anticipating such a situation, travelers wish to carry a medical exemption letter from their health-care provider. If possible, it is advisable to contact the embassy or consulate at the destination country to confirm the requirement for cholera vaccination (if any) and the acceptability of a medical exemption letter.

Dengue Fever: Dengue most likely occurs in the coastal regions. Sandfly fever, West Nile fever, Chikungunya fever, Sindbis fever, and Rift Valley fever may occur.

Hepatitis: All susceptible (nonimmune) travelers should receive the hepatitis A vaccine prior to departure. Hepatitis E is endemic, but the levels are unclear. The hepatitis B carrier rate in the general population is estimated at 11%. Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for healthcare workers and all long-term visitors to this country. Hepatitis C is endemic.

Leishmaniasis: Widespread incidence, with focal distribution countrywide. Cutaneous leishmaniasis occurs in most areas of the Ethiopian highland plateau (elevation 1,500?700 meters), including Addis Ababa. Areas of risk for visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar) include the northwestern, southwestern, and southern lowlands, and the northeastern low-lying arid
areas along the Red Sea coast. Travelers to these areas should take measures to prevent insect (sandfly) bites.

Malaria: Transmission occurs year-round in most lowlands and urban areas below 1,500 to 2,000 meters elevation, especially in areas near or around lakes, swamps, streams, and irrigation ditches. Recent outbreaks reported from the Harerge Administrative Division,
including the Ogaden Region. Risk is elevated during and immediately following the rainy
season (from June through September). There is no malaria in Addis Ababa (elevation 2,450
meters) or the Ethiopian highlands. P. falciparum causes 80%?% of human infections,
followed by P. vivax and P. malariae. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum is reported,
primarily along the southern and western borders. Prophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone), mefloquine (Lariam), or doxycycline is currently recommended when traveling to malarious areas.

Meningitis: Risk is elevated in central and northern areas. Major meningococcal meningitis outbreaks (due predominantly to Group A disease) were reported in 1988?89. Vac-cination is advised for those travelers anticipating close, extended contact with the indigenous population.

Onchocerciasis: Blackfly-borne; occurs primarily along rivers in the Angered Valley and Humera area in Gonder, western Gojam, and most of Kefa, Ilubabor, and Welega Administrative Divisions; additional foci may occur in lowland areas of Gonder, Gama, Gofa, and Western Shewa and Sidamo Administrative Divisions.

Other Diseases/Hazards: African tick typhus, anthrax (in Gonder region), brucellosis, cholera, echinococcosis (high prevalence among nomadic pastoralists in the southwest), filariasis (endemic focus of Bancroftian filariasis at Gambela), leptospirosis, relapsing fever (tick-borne and louse-borne; epidemics of louse-borne disease reported in prisoner-of-war transit camps in Bahr Dar and Mekele), toxoplasmosis, syphilis, tuberculosis (a major health problem), trachoma (up to one-half of the population infected), typhoid fever, typhus (louse-borne and flea-borne; endemic in highlands), and intestinal helminthic infections (very common). Animal hazards include snakes (vipers, cobras, mambas), centipedes, scorpions, and black widow spiders.

Rabies: Higher than average risk. There is a large stray dog population, especially in Addis Ababa and other urban areas, that is primarily responsible for disease transmission. Travelers should seek immediate treatment of any animal bite. Vaccination against rabies should be considered by longer-term travelers to this country.

Schistosomiasis: Peak transmission occurs during the dry season. Intestinal schistosomiasis is widely distributed in highland areas, primarily occurring in agricultural communities along streams between 1,300 and 2,000 meters elevation. Limited areas of urinary schistosomiasis
are confined to warmer lowland areas (below 800 meters elevation), including the middle and lower Awash Valley, the lower Wabi Shebele Valley near the Somali border, and near Kurmuk, Welega Administrative Division, near the Sudan border. Travelers to these areas
should avoid swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, ponds, or streams.

Travelers' Diarrhea: High risk. Most rural water supplies consist of unprotected wells, streams, or natural springs. Large-scale international aid has improved rural wells and reservoirs. In urban areas, piped water is commonly available at public distribution points. Piped water supplies may be contaminated. Travelers should observe all food and drink safety precautions. A quinolone antibiotic is recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea. Diarrhea not responding to treatment with an antibiotic, or chronic diarrhea, may be due to a parasitic disease such as giardiasis, amebiasis, or cryptosporidiosis. Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children.

Yellow Fever: Yellow fever not reported in this country, but epidemics occurred in the southwest in the 1960s. Yellow fever vaccination should be considered by all travelers. This country is in the Yellow Fever Endemic Zone. A valid vaccination certificate may be required for ongoing travel to other countries.