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Capital: Canberra

Time Zone: +10 Eastern, GMT +9.5 Central , and Western is GMT +8.
Tel. Country Code: 61
USADirect Tel.: 1
Electrical Standards: Electrical current is 240/50 (volts/hz). South Pacific Style Adaptor Plug. Grounding Adaptor Plug E.

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Resource Links

World Health Organization
Travel Health Services
Country Insights
Travel Warnings
Consular Information
Foreign Commonweatlh Office


• U.S. Embassy
Moonah Place
Tel: [61] (2) 6214-5600
Fax: [61] (2) 6273-3191

• Canadian Embassy
Commonwealth Avenue
Tel: [61] (2) 6270-4000
Fax: [61] (2) 6270-4081

• British High Commission
Consular Section
Piccadilly House
39 Brindabella Circuit
Canberra Airport
Tel: 1902 941 555 - Consular Section

Entry Requirements

HIV Test: Required for all applicants for permanent residence over age 15 (All other applicants who require medical examinations are tested if it is indicated on clinical grounds.)

Required Vaccinations: Yellow fever: Required for all persons >1 year of age who, within 6 days of arrival in Australia, have been in or have passed through an endemic zone country in Africa or the Americas.

Passport Information

Passport/Visa: American citizens are required to have a valid U.S. passport to enter Australia. Americans must enter with an Australian visa or, if eligible, through Electronic Travel Authority (ETA). The ETA replaces a visa and allows a stay of up to three months. It may be obtained for a small service fee at Airlines and many travel agents in the United States are also able to issue an ETA. Please note that American citizens who overstay their ETA or visa, even for short periods, may be subject to exclusion, detention, and removal.
More information about the ETA, other visas, and entry requirements may be obtained from the Embassy of Australia at 1601 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, telephone (202) 797-3000, or via the Australian Embassy home page on the Internet at Visa inquires may be directed to the Australian Visa Information Service at 888-990-8888. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Australia and other countries. Visit the Embassy of Australia web site at for the most current visa information.

Vaccinations: Recommended and Routine

Yellow fever: Required for all persons >1 year of age who, within 6 days of arrival in Australia, have been in or have passed through an endemic zone country in Africa or the Americas.

Hepatitis A: Recommended for all travelers not previously immunized against hepatitis A who want maximum protection.

Hepatitis B: Recommended for all non-immune travelers at potential risk for acquiring this infection. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from acupuncture, tattooing or body piercing; when receiving non-sterile medical or dental injections, or unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin sores on an infected person. Recommended for long-term travelers, expatriates, and any traveler requesting protection against hepatitis B infection.

Influenza: Vaccination recommended for all travelers >6 months of age who have not received a flu shot in the previous 12 months.

Japanese Encephalitis: Recommended for travel to Torres Strait and far northern Australia.

Routine Immunizations: Immunizations against tetanus-diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR vaccine) and varicella (chickenpox) should be updated, if necessary, before departure. MMR protection is especially important for any female of childbearing age who may become pregnant.
• The new Tdap vaccine, ADACEL, which also boosts immunity against pertussis (whooping cough) should be considered when a tetanus-diphtheria booster is indicated.

Caution: A total of 58 cases of measles were reported in the first half of 2008. This represented an 8-fold increase as compared with the same period last year. Several outbreaks were reported in New South Wales and Queensland. You should be fully immune against measles before traveling to this country.

Who should receive the MMR vaccine?
• All infants 12 months of age or older
• Susceptible adults who do not have documented evidence of measles immunity, such as a physician-diagnosed case of measles, a blood test showing the presence of measles antibody, or proof of receiving measles vaccine.

Immunity against measles is particularly important for adults at high risk for measles exposure, including college students and health care workers. People born before 1957 who are not in one of these high-risk categories are generally considered immune to measles through environmental exposure.

Pertussis Alert:
Since early 2009, several areas in Australia have reported an increase in cases of pertussis. As of April 13, 2009, more than 7,000 cases have been reported across the country.

New South Wales, which includes the city of Sydney, has seen the highest number of cases, with over 5,000 cases. On March 10, 2009, a 4-week-old infant from the North Coast (New South Wales) was reported to have died from pertussis.
Queensland, which includes the cities of Brisbane and Cairns, has also seen significant activity, with over 1,200 reported cases.
The state of Victoria, which includes Melbourne, has reported over 500 cases.
This outbreak highlights how important it is for all international travelers to be up-to-date on routine vaccinations such as pertussis vaccine, regardless of the travel destination. Routine vaccinations, sometimes called “childhood vaccinations,” protect against many diseases that occur both in the United States and in other parts of the world.

Hospitals / Doctors

Medical care in Australia is of a high standard. All travelers should be up-to-date on their immunizations and are advised to carry a medical kit as well as antibiotics to treat travelers diarrhea or other infections. Travelers who are taking regular medications should carry them properly labeled and in sufficient quantity to last for the duration of their trip; they should not expect to obtain prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies in this country - the equivalent drugs may not be available
• Travelers are advised to obtain comprehensive travel insurance with specific overseas coverage, including air ambulance medevac. In the event of a serious illness or injury that can't be treated locally, every effort should be made to arrange medical evacuation to a state-of-the-art facility within this country.

Medical facilities and travel clinics in Australia include:

• The Royal Melbourne Hospital
Ground Floor, 1B Building (ER)
Grattan Street, Parkville Vic
Tel: [61] (03) 9342 7666 or 9342 7009
The Emergency Department at The Royal Melbourne Hospital provides care to the highest acuity emergency patients in Victoria. Approximately 50,000 patients attend the department annually, and it cares for more than 600 major trauma cases and more than 16,000 ambulances cases.

• Sonny Lau, MD
The Travel Doctor - TMVC Melbourne
393 Little Bourke Street
Tel: [61] (3) 9602 5788
Pre-Travel Vaccination, Official Yellow Fever Vaccine Center, Post-Travel Medical Consultation.

• Royal Prince Alfred Hospital
Missenden Road
Tel: [61] (2) 9515 6111
Emergency Tel: [61] (2) 9515 8141
Royal Prince Alfred is the principal teaching hospital of the University of Sydney and offers speciality services from its main campus as well as from Rachel Forster, King George V, and Dame Eadith Walker Hospitals. RPAH is one of Australia's leading hospitals, providing an extensive range of diagnostic and treatment services. Its specialties include cardiology, obstetrics and gynecology, cancer, respiratory medicine, neurology, liver and kidney transplants.

• Brian Morton, MD
Travel Clinics Australia
130 Mowbray Rd
Tel: [61] (2) 9958 8970
Pre-Travel Vaccination, Official Yellow Fever Vaccine Center, Post-Travel Medical Consultation.

• Muddappa Prabhu, M.B., B.S.
International Travel Vaccination Centre
Suite 1002, Level 10
37 Bligh Street
Tel: [61] (02) 9239 0100
Pre-Travel Vaccination, Official Yellow Fever Vaccine Center, Post-Travel Medical Consultation.

• Peter Burke, MBBS DTM&H
IT Medical
45 Stirling Hwy
Tel: [61] (08) 93864511
Pre-Travel Vaccination, Official Yellow Fever Vaccine Center, Post-Travel Medical Consultation, On-Site Diagnostic Laboratory.

• John Skala, MD
Travellers Medical Service/Travel Clinics Australia
Level 1-245 Albert St.
Tel: [61] (7) 3211-3611
Pre-Travel Vaccination, Official Yellow Fever Vaccine Center, Post-Travel Medical Consultation, On-Site Diagnostic Laboratory.

Destination Health Info for Travelers

AIDS/HIV: In high-income nations, HIV infections have historically been concentrated principally among injecting drug users and gay men. These groups are still at high risk, but heterosexual intercourse accounts for a growing proportion of cases.
• Australia and New Zealand have relatively small HIV epidemics. At the end of 2005, the adult HIV prevalence in the general population in these countries was about 0.2%. After declining throughout the 1990s, the rate of new infections in both countries is on the rise. UNAIDS reported 820 new HIV cases in Australia in 2006. In New Zealand, new cases of HIV have more than doubled since 1999. In both countries HIV transmission continues to occur mainly through unprotected sexual contact between men. However, there has also been a steady rise in new HIV infections acquired through heterosexual contact, particularly among minority populations.
In Australia, indigenous women are 18 times more likely to be infected than non-indigenous women, and 3 times more likely than non-indigenous men. Most heterosexual HIV infections in New Zealand are thought to have been acquired abroad; 75% of HIV cases diagnosed in 2005 were of non-European, non-Maori and non-Pacific ethnicity
There is no evidence of extensive HIV infection among injecting drug users in New Zealand. A 2004 survey of injecting drug users in Australia suggests that national needle exchange programs have been effective in reducing the use of unclean equipment. Prevalence of HIV infection among the injecting population which participates in such programs is 1%. Prison populations in Australia and New Zealand also have similar prevalence rates. Source:
• Transmission of HIV can be prevented by avoiding: sexual contact with a high-risk partner; injecting drug use with shared needles; non-sterile medical injections; unscreened blood transfusions.
• The threat of HIV/AIDS should not be a primary concern for the traveler. However, there may be a concern for a subset of travelers who may be exposed to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, through contact with the body fluid of another person or their blood. Although travel has contributed in a general way to the global spread of AIDS, fear of traveling because of this disease is not warranted.

Accidents & Medical Insurance: Accidents and injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers under the age of 55 and are most often caused by motor vehicle and motorcycle crashes; drownings, aircraft crashes, homicides, and burns are lesser causes.
• Heart attacks cause most fatalities in older travelers.
• Infections cause only 1% of fatalities in overseas travelers, but, overall, infections are the most common cause of travel-related illness.
• MEDICAL INSURANCE: Travelers are advised to obtain, prior to departure, supplemental travel health insurance with specific overseas coverage. The policy should provide for direct payment to the overseas hospital and/or physician at the time of service and include a medical evacuation benefit. The policy should also provide 24-hour hotline access to a multilingual assistance center that can help arrange and monitor delivery of medical care and determine if medevac or air ambulance services are required.

Animal Hazards: Animal hazards include snakes (death adder, Australian copperhead, Australian coral, and others), centipedes and scorpions, and spiders (red back, northern funnel-web, mouse, and brown recluse). Fresh- and saltwater crocodiles occur in Australia, but only the saltwater variety has been known to attack humans. Male platypuses can inflict painful puncture wounds and should be avoided. Rogue scrub cattle (domestic animals gone wild) are particularly dangerous terrestrial animals and have been known to attack humans and vehicles without provocation.
• Spider bites (see below): The Sydney funnel web (and a few related Atrax species) is unquestionably the most dangerous spider in Australia; the red back and the paralysis tick are the only other two arachnids with potentially fatal bites. All bites from big black spiders should be managed as suspected funnelweb bites.
The pressure immobilization technique MUST be commenced as soon as possible. Any delay risks the rapid onset of systemic symptoms. There have been no reports of deaths when effective first aid had been instituted.

Dengue Fever: 2 new cases of dengue fever have been confirmed in north Queensland as reported in ProMED 26 November, 2009. Authorities launched a warning 2 weeks ago after 3 cases of imported dengue fever were confirmed in Cairns and one case was detected in Townsville.
The number of dengue cases in the Cairns region has exceeded >100 people as of January 2009. During the current outbreak, the areas of greatest risk are along the coast of north Queensland, the Northern Tetritory, Torres Strait Islands, and north of Western Australia. Dengue fever is a mosquito-transmitted, flu-like viral illness occurring in northern Australia. Symptoms consist of sudden onset of fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash. A syndrome of hemorrhagic shock can occur in severe cases.
• Dengue is transmitted via the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours. All travelers should take measures to prevent mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET- or picaridin-containing repellent to exposed skin and applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear. There is no vaccination or medication to prevent or treat this disease.
• You should consider the diagnosis of dengue if you develop an unexplained fever during or after being in this country.

A dengue fever map is at:

Hepatitis: There is a low risk of hepatitis A in Australia, but sporadic outbreaks of hepatitis A occasionally occur in developed countries. This is a preventable disease and all travelers, not previously immunized, should consider receiving this vaccine. Travelers who are non-immune to hepatitis A (i.e. have never had the disease and have not been vaccinated) should take particular care to avoid potentially contaminated food and water. Hepatitis A is transmitted through contaminated food and water. Travelers who will have access to safe food and water are at lower risk. Those at higher risk include travelers visiting friends and relatives, long-term travelers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation.
• Hepatitis E may be endemic but levels are unclear. Sporadic cases may occur but go underdiagnosed or underreprted. Transmission of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs primarily through drinking water contaminated by sewage and also through raw or uncooked shellfish. Farm animals, such as swine, and also deer and wild boar, may serve as a viral reservoirs. (HEV is one of the few viruses which has been shown to be transmitted directly from animals through food.) In developing countries, prevention of hepatitis E relies primarily on the provision of clean water supplies and overall improved sanitation and hygiene. There is no vaccine.
• The overall hepatitis B (HBsAg) carrier rate in the general population is estimated <2%. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from non-sterile medical or dental injections, and acupuncture; from unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin lesions of an infected person. The average traveler is at low risk for acquiring this infection. Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for: persons having casual/unprotected sex with new partners; sexual tourists; injecting drug users; long-term visitors; expatriates, and anybody wanting increased protection against the hepatitis B virus.
• Hepatitis C is endemic at low levels, with a prevalence of 0.3% in the general population. Most hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread either through intravenous drug use or, in lesser-developed countries, through blood contamination during medical procedures. Over 200 million people around the world are infected with hepatitis C, an overall incidence of around 3.3% of the population of the world. Statistically, as many people are infected with HCV as are with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

Influenza: Influenza is transmitted from April through September in the Southern Hemisphere. The flu vaccine is recommended for all travelers over age age 6 months who have not had a flu shot in the previous 12 months.

Insect-Bite Prevention: You should exercise insect-bite prevention measures, depending on your itinerary and planned activities. For maximum protection, apply a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin (30%–50% concentration recommended) and apply permethrin spray or solution to your clothing and gear.
• Until recently, DEET-based repellents have been the gold standard of protection against mosquito and tick bites. The CDC and the World Health Organization now recommend 20% picaridin as an effective DEET alternative. You can achieve nearly 100% bite protection by using a properly-applied DEET or picaridin skin repellent and wearing permethrin-treated clothing.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE): Limited risk exists on the outer islands of the Torres Strait and possibly in the adjacent Cape York Peninsula of the mainland. Transmission is presumed to occur year-round.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends JE vaccination for travelers spending more than 30 days in an endemic environment, or less than 30 days in areas with epidemic transmission. However, the use of an arbitrary cutoff cannot protect all travelers. Advance knowledge of trip details, accommodation and purpose, as well as local geography, is warranted to give adequate advice. Is travel occurring during the peak transmission season? In general, travelers to rural areas (especially where there is pig rearing and rice farming) should be vaccinated if the duration of their trip exceeds 3 to 4 weeks. They may consider vaccination for trips of shorter duration if more intense exposure is anticipated, especially during unprotected outdoor activities in the evening. Vaccination is advised for expatriates living in this country.
• Japanese encephalitis is transmitted by night-biting Culex mosquitoes. All travelers should take measures to prevent mosquito bites, especially in the evening and overnight. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin, applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear, and sleeping under a permethrin-treated bednet.

Malaria: There is no risk of malaria in Australia.

Marine Hazards: Swimming-related hazards in the coastal waters surrounding Australia include sharks, jellyfish, stonefish, scorpion fish, stingrays, sea snakes, spiny sea urchins, sharp coral and poisonous cone shells. Swimmers should take sensible precautions to avoid these hazards. Stonefish, scorpion fish and stingrays congregate in shallow water along the ocean floor and can be difficult to see. Wearing booties may help protect you, but should not be relied upon as complete protection, as many of the spines are sufficiently rigid and long to penetrate wetsuits, booties, and gloves.
• The jellyfish population appears to be increasing, due in part to overfishing of jellyfish predators, rising water temperatures, and pollution. Jellyfish travel in groups, so looking before you leap into water may be protective.
Treatment guidelines for jellyfish stings:

The most serious hazards:
Sea snakes are found predominantly in the northern waters of Australia, though storms may carry the occasional specimen southward, with authenticated bites from Sydney. They are not likely to be found in waters off the southern coast of Australia, where alleged sea snake bites are essentially always due to some other organism, usually an eel.
• Sea snake venom is highly toxic and the mortality has been reported to be 25% in untreated cases. In severe envenomations, symptoms can occur within 5 minutes, but typically evolve over 8 hours. It is possible that the victim may not have been aware of the bite, since there is little or no pain on envenomation.
Symptoms often include anxiety, muscle aching, salivation and a sensation of tongue swelling, followed by nausea, vomiting, muscle spasms, ascending paralysis, ocular palsy and sometimes loss of vision. Respiratory collapse may ensue, and the need for endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation should be anticipated. Sea snake antivenom (older name: antivenin) should be administered in all actual and suspected cases.
• A sea snake bite is always a medical emergency, even if the victim does not appear ill.
• You must get the victim to an emergency department, as fast as possible.
• En route, attempt to keep the bite site in a resting position, while keeping the victim as still as possible.
• Apply a broad pressure bandage over the bite about as tight as an elastic wrap to a sprained ankle. This is intended to slow the spread of the venom through the lymphatic system. Apply a splint to the limb. Make sure that arterial circulation is not cut off, by making sure fingers or toes stay pink and warm.
• Never cut open a sea snake bite and try to suck venom from the victim.
• Sea snake toxin is not inactivated by changes in temperature or pH. Application of ice, hot packs, or vinegar only wastes time.
Read more:

The box jellyfish, the most dangerous jellyfish in the world, and also a number of creatures known as “sea wasp” are found in northern coastal waters. Box jellyfish stings are potentially lethal and require treatment with antivenom. Cardio-respiratory arrest may occur within 20 minutes of envenomation. Four other varieties of jellyfish (jimble, Carukia, mauve stinger, and hairy stinger) should also be avoided.
Box jellyfish treatment and antivenom information:

The stonefish is a rather unattractive squat fish with a mostly rough “skin” that assists its superb camouflage as it sits on old coral or debris. There is a series of erectile dorsal spines, which, with the associated venom glands, provides the creature means of envenoming potential predators. Stonefish are found throughout northern Australian waters, especially in association with coral reefs. They are mostly encountered in shallow water, where, owing to their excellent camouflage, they may be stepped on by accident, or picked up by the unwary.
• Most stonefish stings occur when the fish is stepped on, or less commonly, when picked up incautiously. No confirmed deaths from stonefish sting have occurred in Australia, but deaths are reported for some stonefish in other parts of Indo-Pacific. Instant and severe pain is a constant feature of stings, followed by local swelling, which may be marked, tenderness and a blue discoloration of skin surrounding the sting site. Dizziness, nausea, hypotension, collapse, cyanosis and pulmonary edema have been described, though are by no means common. Tissue ischemia at the sting site is possible.
• Antivenom: Stonefish antivenom should only be given if there is clear evidence of envenomation. It should be given only IM, not IV.
• The use of stonefish antivenom in stings by other species of scorpionfish is not clearly recommended, but there is limited evidence that it may be beneficial (e.g. possibly bullrout stings, Notesthes robusta). The potential risks of immediate and delayed adverse reactions to antivenom should be carefully considered before using this antivenom for other than stonefish stings.

Emergency treatment guidelines for marine stings are here:

Clinical Toxicology Resources
University of Adelaide

Reviewed and edited by Paul S. Auerbach, MD, FACEP
Author: Wilderness Medicine and Field Guide to Wilderness Medicine

Murray Valley Encephalitis: Outbreaks of Murray Valley encephalitis, a potentially fatal mosquito-borne disease, occur annually in the Northern Territory and North Western Australia, with occasional cases in Queensland, Central Australia and the central regions of Western Australia. Highest attack rates occur in the Australian summer and fall (November–May), especially after periods of heavy rainfall.
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) has the capacity to cause severe human disease, with encephalitis being the most notable clinical feature. MVEV was first isolated from patients who died from encephalitis in the Murray Valley in Victoria and South Australia in 1951. It was previously included as one of the causative agents in the disease called Australian encephalitis, which also included disease caused by Kunjin virus, another flavivirus. MVEV is now recognised as causing the disease Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE).
MVEV can commonly infect humans without producing apparent disease (subclinical infection), or it may cause a comparatively mild disease with features such as fever, headache, nausea and vomiting. In a small percentage of all people infected, mild disease may be a prodrome to disease progression and involvement of the central nervous system, causing meningitis, or in the worst scenario, encephalitis of variable severity. Signs of brain dysfunction, such as drowsiness, confusion, fitting, weakness, or ataxia, indicate the onset of encephalitis.
• MVEV is transmitted via the bite of an infected Culex mosquito. Culex mosquitoes feed predominantly during the hours from dusk to dawn. All travelers should take measures to prevent evening and nighttime mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin, applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear, and sleeping under a permethrin-treated bednet. DEET-based repellents remain the gold standard of protection under circumstances in which it is crucial to be protected against mosquito bites that may transmit disease. Nearly 100% protection can be achieved when DEET repellents are used in combination with permethrin-treated clothing.

Other Diseases/Hazards: Brucellosis (canned goat’s milk in Australia need not be pasteurized and is a potential source of illness), Barmah forest disease (mosquito-borne viral disease), HIV (low risk of transmission), leptospirosis, melioidosis, and helminthic infections (endemic at low levels; hookworm disease, strongyloidiasis).

Rabies: Rabies is not reported from Australia, but a related virus (Australian bat lyssavirus) has been isolated from insectivorous and fruit-eating bats and has caused previous human fatalities.
• No cases of indigenous rabies have been confirmed in humans or any animal species, including bats, from 2001 to mid-2006. This country has an adequate surveillance system for rabies.

Ross River Fever: According to South Australian Department of Health, approximately 350 combined cases of Ross River fever and Barmah Forest fever, a significant increase over average incidence, have been reported across South Australia since January 2011, primarily in peri-urban areas of Adelaide, Murray Bridge, Barmera, Loxton, and Waikerie. After an acute febrile illness joint pain may persist for a year or more in up to 50% of cases. Travelers are advised to practice insect precautions.

Ross River fever is prevalent in north Queensland, the Northern Territory and north of Western Australia. It is a mosquito-borne, debilitating viral illness, also called epidemic polyarthritis. Symptoms include fever, headache, chills, and muscle pains; the polyarthritis is characterized by swollen and aching joints, especially at the knees, ankles and fingers.
• Ross River fever is transmitted via the bite of an infected Aedes vigilax mosquito. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours. All travelers are at risk and should take measures to prevent daytime mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin and applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear. There is no vaccination or medication to prevent or treat this illness.

Spider bites: The Sydney funnel web (and a few related Atrax species) is unquestionably the most dangerous spider in Australia; the red back and the paralysis tick are the only other two arachnids with potentially fatal bites. All bites from big black spiders should be managed as suspected funnelweb bites.
• A bite victim should immediately be evacuated to a medical facility capable of managing the envenomation. Treatment requires giving antivenom, providing artificial ventilation, and invasively monitoring the patient in an intensive care setting.

Tick-Borne Diseases: Queensland tick typhus has been reported in travelers to the northern beaches of Sydney Harbour. Cases of scrub typhus are reported from the tropical rainforests of Litchfield Park. A new tick-borne rickettsial disease, Flinders Island spotted fever, is reported to extend down the southeastern coastal areas of mainland Australia to Flinders Island and northern Tasmania.
• Travelers, especially those engaging in outdoor activities in rural areas, such as campers and hikers, should take measures to prevent tick bites. Tick-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin and permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear.

Travelers' Diarrhea: Low risk. Water in major cities and urban areas is potable, but in rural areas and settlements the water may not meet strict standards of purification. A quinolone antibiotic, or azithromycin, plus loperamide (Imodium), is recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea.
• Giardiasis is endemic in Tasmania and poses a risk to visitors, especially those who participate in wilderness activities such as bushwalking. Filtration of drinking water is advised.