Time Zone: -3 hours GMT. No daylight saving time.
Tel. Country Code: 54
USADirect Tel.: 1
Electrical Standards: Electrical current 220/50 (volts/hz). South Pacific Style Adaptor Plug with V-shaped prongs is the most common adaptor plug. European-style plugs are less common but may be encountered.
Travel Advisory - Argentina
Travelers to Central and South America and the Caribbean need to protect themselves against mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as dengue and Zika, as well as nighttime biting mosquitoes in countries where there is the threat of malaria. I recommend all travelers use a combination of DEET or Picaridin repellent on their skin and Permethrin fabric insecticide on their clothing for greater than 99% protection against mosquito and tick bites.
Dr. Rose Recommends for Travel to Argentina
HIV Test: Not required.
Required Vaccinations: None required.
Passport/Visa: ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A valid passport is required for U.S. citizens to enter Argentina. U.S. citizens do not need a visa for visits of up to 90 days for tourism and business. U.S. citizens who arrive in Argentina with expired or damaged passports may be refused entry and returned to the United States at their own expense. The U.S. Embassy cannot provide guarantees on behalf of travelers in such situations, and therefore encourages U.S. citizens to ensure their travel documents are valid and in good condition prior to departure from the United States. Different rules apply to U.S. citizens who also have Argentine nationality, depending on their dates of U.S. naturalization. For more information, contact the Consulate of Argentna.
Vaccinations: Recommended and Routine
Hepatitis A: Recommended for all travelers >1 year of age not previously immunized against hepatitis A.
Hepatitis B: Recommended for all non-immune travelers at potential risk for acquiring this infection. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; when receiving medical or dental injections, or unscreened transfusions; by direct contact between open skin lesions. Recommended for any traveler requesting protection against hepatitis B infection.
Rabies: Recommended for travelers spending time outdoors in rural areas where there is an increased the risk of animal bites. Children are considered at higher risk because they tend to play with animals and may not report bites. Pre-exposure vaccination eliminates the need for rabies immune globulin in the event of a high-risk animal bite, but does not eliminate the need for treatment with the vaccine.
Routine Immunizations: Immunizations against tetanus-diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR vaccine) and varicella (chickenpox) should be updated, if necessary, before departure. MMR protection is especially important for any female of childbearing age who may become pregnant.
- The new Tdap vaccine, ADACEL, which also boosts immunity against pertussis (whooping cough) should be considered when a tetanus-diphtheria booster is indicated.
Note: According to the Argentine Ministry of Health, 3 confirmed cases of measles (2 imported and 1 local case) have been reported in Buenos Aires since August 6, 2010. An additional suspected case is currently under investigation. This is the first report of indigenous cases in the country since 2000.
Typhoid: Recommended for all travelers with the exception of short-term visitors who restrict their meals to major restaurants and hotels, such as business travelers and cruise passengers.
Yellow Fever: Recommended for all travelers >9 months of age going to the northern and northeastern forested areas, including Iguassu Falls. See map:
Hospitals / Doctors
Medical facilities are generally of a high standard in Argentina and most doctors speak English.
All travelers should be up-to-date on their immunizations and are advised to carry a medical kit as well as antibiotics to treat travelers diarrhea or other infections; they should bring drugs for malaria prophylaxis, if needed according to their itinerary. Travelers who are taking regular medications should carry them properly labeled and in sufficient quantity to last for the duration of their trip; they should not expect to obtain prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies in this country - the equivalent drugs may not be available.
- Travelers are advised to obtain comprehensive travel insurance with specific overseas coverage. Policies should cover: ground and air ambulance transport, including evacuation to home country; payment of hospital bills; 24-hour telephone assistance.
The US Citizen Services at the US Embassy can assist you with medical problems.
Good medical care is available in many private hospitals in Buenos Aires.
Swiss Medical Center
Avenida Pueyrredon 1461-1118
Private hospital and medical center. Specialty services include OB/GYN, ENT, orthopedics, ophthalmolgy, dermatolgy, as well as medicine and surgery. Emergency services available 24 hours daily.
The British Hospital
243-bed private hospital, favored by tourists and expatriates. 24-hr emergency services are available. The Hospital’s main building covers a total of 30,000 square metres. The Hospital is equipped with complete infrastructure and modern technology for the management of complex conditions and medical emergencies.
Mater Dei Hospital
Buenos Aires (100 beds)
Most specialty services; used by the American community and other expatriates.
- Medical services run by General Practitioners
- English & German speaking specialists
- Coordination of appointments with specialists
Destination Health Info for Travelers
AIDS/HIV: In the majority of South American countries, injecting drug use and sex between men are the most important routes of HIV transmission. The virus is then passed on to other sexual partners. The spread of HIV through the sharing of drug injecting equipment is of growing concern in several countries, notably Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and the northern part of Mexico. In 2002, it was estimated that injecting drug use accounted for 40% of new infections in Argentina. (Source: www.Avert.org)
- Transmission of HIV can be prevented by avoiding: sexual contact with a high-risk partner; injecting drug use with shared needles; non-sterile medical injections; unscreened blood transfusions.
- The threat of HIV/AIDS should not be a primary concern for the traveler. However, there may be a concern for a subset of travelers who may be exposed to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, through contact with the body fluids or blood of another person. Although travel has contributed in a general way to the global spread of AIDS, fear of traveling because of this disease is not warranted.
Accidents & Medical Insurance: Accidents and injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers under the age of 55 and are most often caused by motor vehicle and motorcycle crashes; drownings, aircraft crashes, homicides, and burns are lesser causes.
- Heart attacks cause most fatalities in older travelers.
- Infections cause only 1% of fatalities in overseas travelers, but, overall, infections are the most common cause of travel-related illness.
- MEDICAL INSURANCE: Travelers are advised to obtain, prior to departure, supplemental travel health insurance with specific overseas coverage. The policy should provide for direct payment to the overseas hospital and/or physician at the time of service and include a medical evacuation benefit. The policy should also provide 24-hour hotline access to a multilingual assistance center that can help arrange and monitor delivery of medical care and determine if medevac or air ambulance services are required.
Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS)/Altitude Illness: Located on the border of Chile and Argentina, Aconcagua, the crown jewel of the Andes Mountains, stands at the center of an arid desert. Climbing Aconcagua, one can witness views across the Andes, eastward to the Argentine Plain, and westward to the city of Santiago, Chile. At 6,959 m (22,830 ft) Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere and rises higher than any peak outside the Himalaya. It is the highest mountain in the world that can be climbed by individuals without technical experience.
Acute mountain sickness (AMS), also known as altitude illness, is a common malady above 2,400 m (8,000 ft), especially if you do not have a chance to acclimatize by ascending gradually. The prevalence of AMS varies between 15% and 75%, depending on your speed of ascent, altitude gained, sleeping altitude, and individual susceptibility. Acute mountain sickness can progress to high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or be associated with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). You should intersperse your ascent with rest days and avoid, if possible, increasing your sleeping altitude by more than 1,000 - 1,500 feet each night. To reduce further your risk of AMS, take acetazolamide (Diamox), starting the day prior to beginning your ascent. Acetazolamide is a respiratory stimulant that speeds acclimatization and is about 75% effective. It may also reduce the risk of HAPE.
- Symptoms of AMS include mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, dizziness and insomnia. Mild AMS usually resolves with rest plus medication for headache and nausea. You can also take acetazolamide to treat mild AMS.
- Under no circumstances should you continue to ascend (especially to a higher sleeping altitude) if you have any persistent symptoms of altitude illness. In the absence of improvement or with progression of symptoms you should descend (at least 500 m) to a lower altitude.
- Dexamethasone (Decadron) is a steroid drug used for treating AMS and HACE. You should carry stand-by treatment doses. You can take dexamethasone together with acetazolamide to treat mild- to moderate-AMS.
- More severe AMS (increasing headache, vomiting, increasing fatigue or lethargy) may indicate the incipient onset of high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE)—recognized by confusion, difficulty with balance and coordination, staggering gait. Start treatment with dexamethasone and descend immediately.
- Increasing dry cough and breathlessness at rest may indicate high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Nifedipine, sildenafil (Viagra), or tadalafil (Cialis) can be used for both the prevention and treatment of HAPE. Dexamethasone and the asthma drug salmeterol (Serevent) also will prevent HAPE.
- Descent, combined with medication (and oxygen, if available) is the best treatment for more severe AMS, HACE or HAPE. Consider helicopter evacuation if the situation is urgent.
Caution: Prior to departing for a high-altitude trip, consult with a physician about the use of medications for preventing/treating altitude illness.
- International Society for Mountain Medicine
- Institute for Altitude Medicine
- Everest BC Clinic
- Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
- New England Journal of Medicine
Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis): Low risk to tourists, but about 60% of the country is endemic for Chagas disease. Risk occurs primarily in rural-agricultural areas and is associated with sleeping in adobe-style huts and houses that harbor the night-biting triatomid (assasin) bug. Travelers sleeping in such structures should take precautions against nighttime bites, which typically occur on the face of the sleeping victim.
- Other methods of transmission are possible, from: consumption of food or juice (especially sugar cane juice and acai palm juice) contaminated with crushed triatome insects; from blood transfusions; from in-utero transmission.
Cholera: Sporadic cases may occur, but there are no reports of disease activity since 1999. Cholera vaccine is usually recommended only for relief workers or health care personnel who are working in a high-risk endemic area under less than adequate sanitary conditions, or travelers who work or live in remote, endemic or epidemic areas and who do not have ready access to medical care. Canada, Australia, and countries in the European Union license an oral cholera vaccine. The cholera vaccine is not available in the United States.
Cholera vaccine is recommended only for relief workers or health care personnel who are working in a high-risk endemic area under less than adequate sanitary conditions, or travelers who work or live in remote, endemic or epidemic areas and who do not have ready access to medical care. Canada, Australia, and countries in the European Union license an oral cholera vaccine. The cholera vaccine is not available in the United States.
- The main symptom of more severe cholera is copious watery diarrhea.
- Antibiotic therapy is a useful adjunct to fluid replacement in the treatment of cholera by substantially reducing the duration and volume of diarrhea and thereby lessening fluid requirements and shortening the duration of hospitalization.
- A single 1-gm oral dose of azithromycin is effective treatment for severe cholera in adults. This drug is also effective for treating cholera in children. (Refrence: NEJM)
Crime/Security/Civil Unrest: We advise you to exercise caution and monitor developments that might affect your safety in Argentina because the level of crime is increasing. about possible new safety or security risks. Violent crimes such as armed robbery continue to be a problem in major tourist areas, particularly in Buenos Aires and Mendoza. Kidnappings occur in Buenos Aires. To date, kidnappings have tended to target locals rather than tourists.
- Incidents of so-called express kidnappings have occurred where individuals are forced to withdraw funds from ATMs to secure their release.
- Criminals are known to pose as taxi operators at the airport and may operate in collusion with other taxi drivers. Crimes against car passengers, particularly when stopped at traffic lights, are a problem. You should keep windows closed and doors locked in major cities.
- Petty crime including pick-pocketing, bag snatching and bag slitting is common, particularly on public transport. Distraction thefts (eg throwing mustard on people) occur in public areas such as internet cafes, the subway system, and train and bus stations. Criminals have been known to use force if they encounter resistance from tourists.
The Argentine police operate a 24-hour police helpline in English for tourists in Buenos Aires, which can be accessed by dialling 101.
- We recommend you use only official taxis. Travellers have been robbed when using taxis hailed on the street.
- If hiking in the high country or mountainous areas, you should register your details with park authorities. Climbers and hikers should fully acquaint themselves with local natural hazards and conditions, including weather conditions. Read more.
Dengue Fever: In 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of reported cases of dengue across the region. The northern Argentine provinces bordering Paraguay are the areas most affected. The largest number of cases were reported from the northern province of Chaco, followed by the provinces of Catamarca and Salta. Cases were also described in the provinces of Jujuy, Formosa, Tucuman, Santa Fe, and Corrientes. Dengue has also been reported in 2009 in Buenos Aires, but is not a risk during the winter months of July to September.
Travelers to the northeast regions, including Iguazu Falls, should take precautions against insect bites. Map.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-transmitted, flu-like viral illness widespread in South America. Symptoms consist of sudden onset of fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash. A syndrome of hemorrhagic shock can occur in severe cases.
- Dengue is transmitted via the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours. All travelers are at risk and should take measures to prevent daytime mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin and applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear.
- There is no vaccination or medication to prevent or treat dengue.
Update November 2013: Certain countries in Central and South America, including Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, and Mexico, have experienced unusually high numbers of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever during 2009. The peak of case reports occurred during January through May. Currently reported cases of dengue are on a decline in this region; however, there is still an ongoing risk of dengue in these areas.
Echinococcosis: High incidence reported in southern cattle/sheep rearing regions. Human prevalence is among the highest reported worldwide. Travelers to these regions should avoid contact with dogs in order to prevent accidental ingestion of infective eggs which are passed in dog feces. Strict personal hygiene, especially handwashing, is important and all travelers should pay close attention to food and drink guidelines in order to avoid ingestion of potentially contaminated food.
Food & Water Safety: Tap water is considered safe to drink. Drinking water outside main cities and towns may be contaminated and filtration or sterilization is advisable. Pasteurized milk and dairy products are safe for consumption. Avoid unpasteurized milk as brucellosis occurs. Local meat, poultry, seafood, fruit and vegetables are generally considered safe to eat.
Hantavirus: Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) have been confirmed in the Americas, including the U.S., Canada, Argentina (recent fatalities), Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay. This is an often fatal respiratory disease for which there is no vaccine or specific treatment. The risk to travelers is low. HPS occurs sporadically, usually in rural areas where forests, fields, and farms offer suitable habitat for the virus's rodent hosts. People become infected through contact with hantavirus-infected rodents or their urine and droppings. The virus is mainly transmitted to people when they breathe in air contaminated with the virus. The chance of being exposed to hantavirus is greatest when people work (for example, barns, outbuildings, and sheds), play, or live in closed spaces where rodents are actively living.
Hepatitis: All travelers not previously immunized against hepatitis A should be vaccinated against this disease. Travelers who are non-immune to hepatitis A (i.e. have never had the disease and have not been vaccinated) should take particular care to avoid potentially contaminated food and water. Travelers who will have access to safe food and water are at lower risk. Those at higher risk include travelers visiting friends and relatives, long-term travelers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation.
- Hepatitis E is endemic but levels are unclear. Sporadic cases and outbreaks may occur. Transmission of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs primarily through drinking water contaminated by sewage and also through raw or uncooked shellfish. Farm animals may serve as a viral reservoir. In developing countries, prevention of hepatitis E relies primarily on the provision of clean water supplies and overall improved sanitation and hygiene. There is no vaccine.
- The overall hepatitis B (HBsAg) carrier rate in the general population is estimated at <2%. Hepatitis B is transmitted via infected blood or bodily fluids. Travelers may be exposed by needle sharing and unprotected sex; from non-sterile medical or dental injections, and acupuncture; from unscreened blood transfusions; by direct contact with open skin lesions of an infected person. The average traveler is at low risk for acquiring this infection. Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for: persons having casual/unprotected sex with new partners; sexual tourists; injecting drug users; long-term visitors; expatriates, and anybody wanting increased protection against the hepatitis B virus.
- Hepatitis C is endemic at a low level with a prevalence of 0.6% in the general population. Most hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread either through intravenous drug use or, in lesser-developed countries, through blood contamination during medical procedures. Over 200 million people around the world are infected with hepatitis C - an overall incidence of around 3.3% of the population of the world. Statistically, as many people are infected with HCV as are with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
Leishmaniasis: Risk of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is limited to the northern one-third of the country, with the majority of cases reported from Salta, Jujuy, Catamarca, and Santiago del Estero Provinces. Occasional cases of visceral leishmaniasis have been reported from Salta and Chaco Provinces.
The parasites that cause leishmaniasis are transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sandfly. Sandflies bite in the evening and at night and are usually found in forests, the cracks of stone or mud walls, or animal burrows.
- All travelers should take measures to prevent sandfly bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin, permethrin (spray or solution) to clothing and gear, and sleeping under a permethrin-treated bednet.
Leptospirosis: An outbreak of Leptospirosis affecting 48 people with one death was reported in Entre Rios province in April 2010. Leptospirosis had been reported recently in the neighboring Santa Fe province. (Source: ProMED-mail 4 April 2010). An outbreak of leptospirosis was also reported from Santa Fe province in April 2007, after flooding.
Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection acquired by exposure to water contaminated by the urine of infected animals, chiefly rats, pigs and dogs. The disease causes flu-like symptoms and rash, sometimes complicated by meningitis, jaundice and kidney failure. Travelers to Santa Fe province should avoid exposure to bodies of fresh water, such as lakes, ponds, and streams. People engaged in surface water sports, such as rafting, may be at risk.
Malaria: There is a low risk of malaria year-round in rural areas below 1,200 meters elevation in the northern border regions of Argentina. (Provinces of Jujuy, Salta on the Bolivian border, Corrientes, and Misiones on the Paraguay border. (See malaria map). There is a very low risk of malaria in Iguazu Falls.
- Travelers to rural areas of the northern border regions should consider taking Malarone or chloroquine. Be aware that chemoprophylaxis may not prevent a delayed attack of Vivax malaria. Strict mosquito-bite prevention measures in the evening and at nIght is the best way to prevent malaria and avoid medication side effects. Chemoprophylaxis is not recommended for travel to the rest of Argentina, including Iguazu Falls.
- Malaria is transmitted via the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Anopheles mosquitoes feed predominantly during the hours from dusk to dawn. All travelers should take measures to prevent evening and nighttime mosquito bites. Insect-bite prevention measures include applying a DEET-containing repellent (such as Ultrathon or Ben's 30) to exposed skin, applying permethrin spray or solution to clothing and gear, and sleeping under a permethrin-treated bednet. DEET-based repellents have been the gold standard of protection under circumstances in which it is crucial to be protected against mosquito bites that may transmit disease. Nearly 100% protection can be achieved when DEET repellents are used in combination with permethrin-treated clothing.
- NOTE: Picardin repellents (20% formulation, such as Sawyer GoReady or Natrapel 8-hour) are now recommended by the CDC and the World Health Organization as acceptable non-DEET alternatives to protect against malaria-transmitting mosquito bites. Picaridin is also effective and ticks and biting flies.
- You should consider the diagnosis of malaria if you develop an unexplained fever during or after being in this country.
Other Diseases/Hazards: Argentine hemorrhagic fever (viral disease transmitted by contact with infected rodent excreta; more common in agricultural areas of the moist pampas region of east-central Argentina)
- Anthrax (human cases in 2007: The Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia del Ministro de Salud de la Nacion reported 9 human cases in 2007, with 7 in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios and Santa Fe; mostly cutaneous; associated with farming and slaughterhouse exposure; outbreaks of bovine anthrax reported in 2008).
- Arboviral fevers (mosquito-transmitted; include Eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan encephalitis)
- Brucellosis (high incidence; travelers should avoid unpasteurized dairy products. Humans acquire infection by ingestion of unpasteurized milk products or, less commonly, ingestion of poorly cooked meat from infected animals, by direct or indirect exposure to the organism through mucous membranes or broken skin, or by inhalation of infectious material)
- Hantaviral disease (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantaviral pulmonary syndrome; transmitted by contact with rodents or rodent excrement; occasionally transmitted from person-to-person; usually occurs in those who live in rodent-infested dwellings in rural areas; unlikely to affect most travelers, though campers in forest areas may be at risk; no cases have been reported in tourists)
- Human fascioliasis (liver fluke disease; sporadic cases; goats, sheep, and cows are reservoirs; humans are infected by ingestion of aquatic plants that contain the infected metacercariae)
- Rickettsial disease: The first confirmed case of Rickettsia massiliae infection in the New World (Buenos Aires, Argentina) was reported in April 2010. To date, only two cases of human infection had been reported in Europe. The patient, a woman, had a fever, a palpable purpuric rash on the upper and lower extremities, and a skin lesion (eschar) on the right leg compatible with tache noire. The patient reported having had contact with dog ticks. After treatment with doxycycline for 12 days, her symptoms resolved.
- Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever (tick-borne; fatal cases are confirmed in Jujuy Province)
- Strongyloidiasis and other intestinal helminthic infections
- Tick-borne relapsing fever (northern Argentina)
- Trichinellosis (from consuming homemade sausage)
- Typhus (louse-borne and flea-borne; murine typhus is reported in warmer rural and jungle areas in the north; murine typhus, also called fleaborne or endemic typhus, is a rickettsial disease caused by the organism Rickettsia typhi. Another organism, R. felis, may also play a role in causing murine typhus. Rickettsiae are a type of bacteria. )
- Environmental: Asthma, sinus and bronchial problems can be aggravated by the polluted atmosphere in the major cities.
Rabies: Argentina reported a fatal case of human rabies in April 2008 in an 8-year-old boy living in Jujuy province. He was bitten by a dog. Jujuy province has had an outbreak of rabies for the past 2 years. (ProMED July 2008) There is a low over-all risk of rabies to travelers. About 20 human cases occur annually from both urban and rural areas. Rabies vaccine is recommended for: persons anticipating an extended stay; for those whose work or activities may bring them into contact with animals; for people going to rural or remote locations where medical care is not readily available; for travelers desiring extra protection. Children are considered at higher risk because they tend to play with animals and may not report bites.
- Pre-exposure vaccination eliminates the need for rabies immune globulin, but does not eliminate the need for two additional booster doses of vaccine. Prompt medical evaluation and treatment of any animal bite is essential, regardless of vaccination status.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Clusters of patients with fever and rash in Jujuy Province have been diagnosed with the tick-borne rickettsial infection Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever (RMSF). Four patients died. RMSF is characterized by fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice.
Travelers' Diarrhea: Moderate risk outside of Buenos Aires and other urban areas. Outside of hotels and resorts, we recommend that you boil, filter or purify all drinking water or drink only bottled water or other bottled beverages and do not use ice cubes. Avoid unpasteurized milk and dairy products. Do not eat raw or undercooked food (especially meat, fish, raw vegetables—these may transmit intestinal parasites, as well as bacteria). Peel all fruits.
- Wash your hands with soap or detergent, or use a hand sanitizer gel, before you eat. Good hand hygiene helps prevent travelers’ diarrhea.
- A quinolone antibiotic, or azithromycin, combined with loperamide (Imodium), is recommended for the treatment of diarrhea. Diarrhea not responding to antibiotic treatment may be due to a parasitic disease such as giardiasis, amebiasis, or cryptosporidiosis.
- Seek qualified medical care if you have bloody diarrhea and fever, severe abdominal pain, uncontrolled vomiting, or dehydration.
Trichinellosis: The Department of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health of Cordoba, has reported in 2014 an outbreak of trichinellosis, and warned of the risk of eating or buying pork meat of suspect provenance or without the relevant health inspection. To date, 13 people have been treated for trichinellosis and all patients reported consumption of products made with pork bought at the same shop.
Trichinellosis (also called trichinosis) is a disease transmitted by eating raw or undercooked meat, especially pork, contaminated with the parasite Trichinella spiralis. Pigs, feral hogs, cougars and black bears can all harbor Trichinella infection. Clinical manifestations may present with fever, severe muscle pain, headache, and pain and swelling around the eyes. Gastrointestinal signs such as vomiting and diarrhea may also occur. The risks are greater when the meat comes from illegal slaughterhouses or home slaughter, which may not follow the necessary hygiene and health regulations. Recommendations to prevent this disease:
- Do not consume or permit the consumption of raw meats and homemade sausages that have not been previously inspected.
- Do not consume choripan [chorizo sandwich] from unauthorized vendors.
- Remember that salting or smoking meats is not enough to destroy parasites.
Typhoid Fever: An outbreak of typhoid fever was reported in January 2007 from Jujuy Province in the extreme northwest of the country. Typhoid fever is the most serious of the Salmonella infections. Typhoid vaccine is recommended by the CDC for all people (except short-stay visitors and cruise ship passengers) traveling to or working in South America, especially if visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas and staying with friends or relatives where exposure might occur through food or water. Current vaccines against Salmonella typhi are only 50-80% protective and do not protect against Salmonella paratyphi, the cause of paratyphoid fever. (Paratyphoid fever bears similarities with typhoid fever, but the course is generally more benign.) Travelers should continue to practice strict food, water and personal hygiene precautions, even if vaccinated.
Yellow Fever: In January 2009, a case of yellow fever was reported in a Paraguayan man who appeared to have been infected while visiting Misiones province.
On March 3, 2008, the Argentina Ministry of Health (MOH) reported their first official human case of yellow fever for 2008 in Misiones Province. As of May 20, the Argentina MOH has reported 7 confirmed cases of yellow fever, including one death (all in Misiones Province). Prior to the onset of human cases, yellow fever disease was confirmed as the cause of death for at least one monkey found in Piñalito Park, San Pedro Department, Misiones Province, in the northeastern corner of Argentina, bordered by Brazil and Paraguay. In response, Argentina MOH officials are increasing yellow fever vaccination in humans living in the surrounding areas and are recommending yellow fever vaccination for specific risk areas. Based on these recommendations, CDC is expanding the areas in Argentina for which yellow fever vaccine is recommended.
Since late 2007, emerging yellow fever disease has been reported in monkeys and humans from many South American countries.
Recommendations for Travelers:
- Yellow fever vaccination is recommended for all travelers older than 9 months who are going to the northern and northeastern forested areas of Argentina, including Iguaçu Falls and all areas bordering Paraguay and Brazil. These areas include:
All departments of Misiones and Formosa Provinces
Department of Bermejo in Chaco Province
Departments of Berón de Astrada, Capital, General Alvear, General Paz, Ituzaingó, Itatí, Paso de los Libres, San Cosme, San Miguel, San Martín and Santo Tomé in Corrientes Province
Departments of Valle Grande, Ledesma, Santa Bárbara and San Pedro in Jujuy Province
Departments of General José de San Martín, Oran, Rivadavia and Anta in Salta Province
- Yellow fever vaccination is not required to enter Argentina.